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A Fatherless Boy, Carpenter and Contractor, Anti-Slavery 
Lecturer, Merchant, Railroad Builder, Superintendent of 
Mine, Attorney-at-Law, County Attorney, Municipal Judge 
Register of United States Lands, Receiver of Public Monies 
for U. S , United States Consul to Madagascar — Prominent 
Race Leaders, etc. 

Washington, D. C. 

Copyright, 1902. 


During the late years abroad, while read 
ing- the biographies of distinguished men 
who had been benefactors, the thought oc- 
curred that I had had a varied career, 
though not as fruitful or as deserving of re- 
nown as these characters, and differing as 
to status and aim. Yet the portrayal might 
be of benefit to those who, eager for ad- 
vancement, are willing to be laborious stu- 
dents to attain worthy ends. 

I have aimed to give an added interest to 
the narrative by embellishing its pages 
with portraits of men who have gained dis- 
tinction in various fields, Avho need only to 
be seen to i)resent the career of those now 
living as wortlij^ models, and the record of 
the dead, who left the Avorld the better for 
having lived. To enjoy a life prominent 
and prolonged is a desire as natural as 
worthy, and there have been those who 
sought to extend its duration by nostrums 
and drinking-waters said to bestow the vir- 
tue of "perpetual life.'' But if "to live in 
hearts we leave behind is not to die,'' to be 
worthy of such memorial we must have 
done or said something that blessed the 
living or benefited coming generations. 
Hence autobiography is the record, for 
"books are as tombstones made by the liv- 



ingj but destined soon to remind us of the 

Trusting that any absence of literary 
merit will not impair the author's cher- 
ished design to ^^impart a moral/' should 
he fail to ^^adorn a tale." 

Little Rock, Ark., January, 1902. 



It is seldom that one man, even if he has 
lived as long as Judge M. W. Gibbs is 
able to record his impressions of so many 
widely separated parts of the earth's sur- 
face as Judge Gibbs can, or to recall per- 
sonal experiences in so many important oc- 

Born in Philadelphia, and living there 
when that city — almost on the border line 
between slavery and freedom — was the 
scene of some of the most stirring incidents 
in the abolition agitation, he was able as 
a free colored youth, going to Maryland to 
work, to see and judge of the condition of 
the slaves in that State. Some of the most 
dramatic operations of the famous ^^Under- 
ground Eailroad'' came under his personal 
observation. He enjoj^ed the rare privilege 
of being associated in labor for the race 
with that man of sainted memory, the Hon. 
Frederick Douglass. He met and heard 
many of the most notable men and women 
who labored to secure the freedom of the 
Negro. As a resident of California in the 
exciting years which immediately followed 
the discovery of gold, he watched the devel- 
opment of lawlessness there and its results. 
A few years later he went to British Colum- 



bia to live, when that colonj^ was practical- 
ly an unknown countiy. Eeturning to the 
United States, he was a witness to the ex- 
citing eA ents connected with the jears of 
Keconstruction in Florida, and an active 
participant in the events of that period in 
the State of Arkansas. At one time and 
another he has met many of the men who 
have been i^rominent in the direction of the 
affairs of both the great political parties of 
the country. In more recent years he has 
been able to see something of life in 
Europe, and in his official capacity as 
XTnited States Consul to Tamatave, Mada- 
gascar, adjoining Africa, has resided for 
some time in that far-off and strange land. 

It would be difficult for any man who 
has had all these experiences not to be en- 
tertaining w hen he tells of them. Judge 
Clibbs has written an interesting book. 

Interspersed with the author's recollec- 
tions and descriptions are various conclu- 
sions, as when he says: ^^Labor to make 
yourself as indispensable as possible in all 
your relations with the dominant race, and 
color will cut less figure in your up- 
ward grade.'' 

'^Yice is ever destructive; ignorance ever 
a victim, and poverty ever defenseless.'' 

^^Only as w^e increase in property will 
our political barometer rise.'' 

It is significant to find one who has seen 
so much of the world as Judge Gibbs has, 
saying, as he does: ^^With travel some- 
what extensive and diversified, and with 
residence in tropical latitudes of Negro 



origin, 1 have a decided conviction, despite 
tlie crucial test to which he has been sub- 
jected in the past, and the present disad- 
vantages under which he labors, that no- 
where is the promise along all the lines of 
opportunity brighter for the American Ne- 
gro than here in the land of his nativity.'^ 
I bespeak for the book a careful reading 
by those who are interested in the history 
of the Negro in America, and in his present 
and future. 





Parents, School and Teacher— Foundation of 
the Negroes' Mechanical Knowledge— First 
Brick A. M. E. Church— Bishop Allen— Olive 
Cemetery — Harriet Smith Home— "Under- 
ground Railroad"— Incidents on the Road- 
William and Ellen Craft— William Box Brown. 


Nat Turner's Insurrection — Experience on a 
Maryland Plantation— First Street Cars in 
Philadelphia— Anti-Slavery Meetings— Amus- 
ing Incidents— Opposition of Negro Churches— 
Kossuth Celebration, and the Unwelcome 


Cinguez, the Hero of Armistead Captives^The 
Threshold of Man's Estate— My First Lectur- 
ing Tour with Frederic Douglass— His "Life 
and Times" — Pen Picture of George William 
Curtis of Ante-Bellum Conditions — Harriet 
Beecher Stowe, Lucretia Mott, and Frances E. 
Harper, a Noble Band of Women— "Go Do 
Some Great Thing" — Journey to California — 
Incidents at Panama. 


Arrival at San Francisco— Getting Domiciled 
and Seeking Work— Strike of White Em- 
ployees—Lester & Gibbs, Importers— As- 
saulted in Our Store— First Protest from the 
Colored Men of California — Poll Tax. 


"Vigilance Committee" and Ljaich Law at 
"Fort Gunny"— Murder of James King, of Wil- ^ 
liam— A Paradox to Present Conditions. 


(vold Discovery in British Columbia— Incidents 
on Shipboard and Arrival at Victoria — Na- 
tional Unrest in 1859— "Irrepressible Conflict" 
— Garrison and Douglass — Harriet Beecher 



Stowe and Frances Ellen Harper— John Brown 
of Harper's Ferry — "Fugitive Slave Law'' — 
Flight to Canada. 


Abraham Lincoln President— Rebellion Inaug- 
urated—Success of the Union Army— Re-Elec- 
tion of Lincoln — Bravery and Endurance of 
Negro Soldiers — Assassination of Lincoln- 
Lynching Denounced by Southern Governors 
and Statesmen — Words of Wisdom from 
St. Pierre de Couberton. 


My First Entry Into Political Life — Intricacies 
of the Ballot — Number of Negro Schools, 
Pupils and Amount of School Property in 1898 
— Amendment to Constitution and Interview 
with Yice-Presldent Schuyler Colfax at Vic- 
toria, B. C. — William Lloyd Garrison, Jr., and 
James Russell Lowell on the Right to Vote. 


Philip A. Bell, a Veteran Editor of the "Negro 
Press"— British Columbia, Its Early History, 
Efforts for Annexation to the United States- 
Meeting with Lady Franklin, WidoAV of Sir 
Jolm Franklin, the Arctic Explorer, in, 1859 — 
Union of British Columbia with the Dominion 
of Canada in 1868, the Political Issue— Queen 
Charlotte Island — Anthracite Coal Company — 
Director, Contractor and Shipper of First 
Cargo of Anthracite Coal on the Pacific 
Coast— Indians and Their Peculiarities. 


An Incident of Peril — My Return to the United 
States in 1869— Thoughts and Feelings En 
Routt- Entered Oberlin Law^ College and 
(Graduated— Visit to my Brother, J. C. Gibbs, 
Secretary of State of Florida— A Delegate to 
the Xational Convention of Colored Men at 
Charleston, S. C. — "Gratitude Expensive"— The 
Trend of Republican Leaders^ — Contribution of 
Southern White People for Xegro Education- 
Views of a Leading Democrat. 


President of National Convention at Nashville, 
Tenn., in 187(i— Pen and Ink Sketch by H. V. 
Redfield of "Cincinnati Commercial"— Colored 
Leaders Desire to Fraternize for Race Protec- 




tion— William H. Grey, H. B. Robinson, and 
J. H. Johnson, of Aiivansas, Leaders and 
Planters — My Arrival at Little Rock, May, 
1871— Reading* of Local Statutes in the Law 
Office of Benjamin & Barnes— "Wheeler & 
Gibbs," Attorneys-at-Law. 


Politics and Politicians — Disruption of the Re- 
publicans in Arkansas — "Minstrels and Brin- 
dle Tails"— Early Canvas-sing in the South, 
with Its Peculiarities — Ku Klux Visits — My 
Appointment as County Attorney and Election 
as Municipal Judge— Hon. John Allen, of Mis- 
sissippi, Hisi Descriptive Anecdote. 


Lowering Cloud on Righteous Rule— Compari- 
son of Negro Progress— Sir Walter Scott in His 
Notes on English History — George C. Lorimer, 
a Noted Divine— Educational Solution of the 
Race Problem— Baron Russell, Lord Chief Jus- 
tice of England— Civil War in Arkansas- 
Expulsion of Governor Baxter and Instalment 
of Governor Brooks at the State House^ 
Stirring Episodes— ''Who Shall Bell the 
Cat?"— Extraordinary Session of the Legisla- 
ture — My Issue of a Search Warrant for the 
Seal of the State — Recognition of Baxter by 
the President. 


Arkansas Constitutional Convention and New 
Constitution Adopted— Augustus H. Garland 
Elected Governor— My Letter from Madagas- 
car on Learning of His Demise — General 
Grant's Nomination in 1872 at the Academy of 
Music, Philadelphia— Oliver P. Morton, of In- 
diana—William H. Gray, of Arkansasr— R. B. 
Elliot, of South Carolina— "Henry at Ajin- 
court"— Study of Obsolete Languages Versus 
Industrial Education— Views of Lord Rose- 
bery, ex-Premier of England — Also of Wash- 
ington Post— United States Have Supreme 
Advantages for the Negro. 


Presidential Elector in 1876, Receiving the 
Highest Vote— President Hayes, His Yearn- 
ings and Accomplishments— Protest Against 
Lawlessness by the Negroes in State Conven- 




tions— Negro Exodus from the Southern to the 
Western States in 1878— Secretary William 
Windom's Letter— Hon J. C. Rapier, of Ala- 
bama, and Myself Appointed by Secretary 
Windom to Visit Western States and Report. 


Appointed by the President in 1877 Register 
of U. S. Lands— Robert J. IngresoU on the 
Benignity of Homestead Law— General 
Grant's Tour Around the World and His 
Arrival at Little Rock, 1879— A Guest at the 
Banquet Given Him— Response to the Toast, 
"The Possibilities of American Citizenship" — 
Roscoe Conkling's Speech Nominating General 
Grant for Third Term— Bronze Medal as one of 
the Historic ''306" at the National Convention 
of 1880— The Manner of General Grant's De- 
feat for Nomination and Garfield's Success — 
Character Sketches of Hon. James G. Blaine, 
Ingersoll's Mailed Warrior and Plumed Knight 
—Hon Grover Cleveland. 


Honorary Commissioner for the Colored Ex- 
hibits of the World's Exposition at New Or- 
leans, La. — Neglected Opportunties — Impor- 
tant Factors Necessary to Recognition. 


Effort of Henry Brown, of Oberlin, Ohio, to 
Establish "Schools of Trade" — Call for a Con- 
ference of Leading Colored Men in 1885— In- 
dustrial Fair at Pine Bluff, Ark.— Captain 
Thompson, of the "Capital Guards," a Colored 
Military Company — Meeting of Prominent 
Leaders at New Orleans— The Late N. W. 
Cuney, of Texas^Contented Benefactions 
from Christian Churches. 


The Reunion of General Grant's "306"— Ferdi- 
nand Ha vis, of Pine Bluff— Compromise and 
Disfranchisement— Progress of the Negro — 
"Decoration Day"— My Letter to the "Ga- 
zette" — Commission to Sell Lots of the Hot 
Springs Reservation— Twelve Years in the 
Land Service of the United States. 


My Appointment as U. S. Consul to Tamatave, 
Madagascar— My Arrival in France En Route 




to Paris — Called ou Ambassador Porter and 
Consul Gowdy Relative to My ''Exequator"— 
Visited the Louvre, the Famous Gallery of 
Paintings— "Follies Bergere," or Variety 
Theater— The "Dome des Invalids" or the 
Tomb of the Great Napoleon— Mrs. Mason, of 
Arkansas and Washington, in Paris — Mar- 
seilles and "Hotel du Louvre" — Embarkation 
on French Ship "Pie Ho" for Madagascar — 
Scenes and Incidents En Route — "Port Said" — 
Visit to the "Mosque," Mohammedan Place of 


Suez Canal— The Red Sea— Pharaoh and His 
Hosts — Their Waterloo— Children of Israel — 
Travel by Sea — Arrival and Landing at Mada- 
gascar—Bubonic Plague- My Letter From 


Island of Madagascar— Origin and Character 
of the Inhabitants— Their Religion and Super- 
stitions — Physical Appearance of Madagas- 
car—A Word Painting of Antananarivo, the 
Capital, by Cameron — Forms of Government- 
Queens of Madagascar — Slavery and Forced 


Introduction of the Christian Religion— Print- 
ing the Bible, Edict by Queen Ranavalona 
Against It — The New Religion "a Cloth of a 
Pattern She Did Not Like"— Asked the Mis- 
sionaries, "Can You Make Soap V"— "Dark 
Days"— Persecutions and Executirns for a 
Quarter of a Centur.y— Examples of Christian 
Martyrs— Death of Queen Ranav i iona— Perma- 
nent Establishment of the Christian Religion- 
Self-denial and Heroic Service of the Roman 
Catholics— Native Race Protection Commit- 
tee— P'orced Labor Abolished. 


Cuba and the Philippines — Their Acquisition 
Under the Plea of Relief From Spanish Mis- 
rule— Aguinaldo, Leader of the Filipinos — The 
'Fidelity and Bravery of the American Negro 
in the Spanish War— Attestation by Many Wit- 
nesses— Indu:i,trial Education— Othello's Occu- 
pation Gone When Polls are Closed. 





Opposition Possibly Beiieti cent— President Mc- 
Kinlej's Order for Enlistment of Colored Sol- 
diers—General (irosvenor's Tribute — Fifteen 
Thousand in the Spanish War — U. S. Supreme 
Court vs. The Negro— The Basis of Congres- 
sional Representation. 


Depart u re f r o ni ^NJ a d a ga s ca v—^l e m o r i e s^ — ( t o v - 
ernor General's Farewell Letter— Madagascar 
Branch of the Smithsonian Institute — Wild 
Animals, a Consul's Burden— Descriptive Let- 
ter to State Department. 


Leave-taking, its Jollity and Sadness — Arrival 
at Camp Aden, Arabia— An Elysium for the 
Toper— Whisky Was Plenty, But the W^ater 
Was Out— Pleasant Visit to U. S. Consul Cun- 
ningham, of Knoxville, Tenn. — Arrival at 
Suez— My Visit to the U. S. Cruiser ''New 
York"— The Urbanity of Captain Rogers- 
Suez Canal— Port Said— ^ Mai de Mer"— Mar- 
seilles to Paris — Across the English Channel to 


My First Visit tO' the Land of Wilberforce 
and Clarkson — Excursion on the Thames- 
Bank of England — Visited Towers of London— 
Beauehamp Tower With Its Sad Inscriptions— 
AiTival at New York— National Negro Busi- 
ness Men's League Convention at Chicago — 
Booker T. Washington President — Many Tal- 
ented Business Men in Attendance. 


Visit to President McKinley at Canton, Ohio— 
His Assassination at Buffalo- The Assassin 
Struck Down by James Parker— President's 
Death— The Nation in Tears— A Christian 
Statesman— A Lover of Justice— Crucial 
Epochs of Our Country's History, the Negro 
at the Fore. 


President Roosevelt— His Imperial Honesty— 
Ex-Governor Jones, of Alabama— Advance of 
Justice in Our Country— Status a Half-Cen- 
tury Ago— Theodore l*arker's Arraignment- 
Eulogy by Ralph Waldo Emerson. 






Booker T. Washington a Gnest at the White 
House— Northern and Southern Press Com- 
ments—The Latter Not Typical of the Best 
Element of Southern Opinion. 

Washington City, the American Mecca— 
Ante-room at the White House — The Diary of 
an Office Seeker— William, the Innocent — 
William, the Croker— Colored People of the 
District of Columbia— Colored Press of the Dis- 


Howard University— Public Schools— R. H. 
Terrell Appointed to a Judgship of the Dis- 
trict—Unlettered Pioneers- Conclusions. 





1. M. AY. Gibbs Frontispiece. 

2. Rieiiarcl Allen 8 

3. Wm. Lloyd Garrison 18 

4. Frederick Douglass 32 

5. Booker T. Washington 44 

6. H. M. Turner 50 

7. Geo. H. White 58 

8. J. M. Langston 70 

9. Abraham Lincoln 74 

10. W. B. Derrick 80 

11. Alexander Walters 92 

12. H. F. Cheatham 104 

13. Edward E. Cooper 118 

14. Judson Lj^ons 128 

15. Powell Clayton 140 

le. P. B. S. Pinchback 149 

17. A. II. Garland 158 

18. J. A. Booker 172 

19. 1. G Ish 175 

20. J. P. Green 183 

21. P. L. Dunbar 199 

22. B. K. Bruce 204 

23. T. T. Fortune 210 

24. W. A. Pledger 220 

25. John C. Dancey 228 

26. Abram Grant 253 

27. J. E. Bush 263 

28. J. P. Robinson 272 

29. Martyrs 274 

30. Chester W. Keatts 284 

31. J. T. Settle 294 

32. Justice Harlan 302 

33. Charles W. Chestnut 312 

34. William McKinley 327 

35. James B. Parker 331 

36. President Roosevelt 336 

37. Secretary Cortelyou 341 

38. W. Calvin Chase 367 

39. R. H. Terrill 370 


In the old family Bible I see it recorded 
that I Avas born April 17, 1823, in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., the son of J'onatlian C. Gibbs and 
Maria, his wife. M}^ father was a minister 
in the Wesleyan Methodist Church, my 
mother a ^liard-shell'- Baptist. But no dif- 
ference of religious views interrupted the 
even tenor of their domestic life. At seven 
years of age I was sent to what w^as know^n 
as the Free School, those schools at that 
time invaluable for colored youth, had not 
graded studies, systematized, and with 
such accessories for a fruitful development 
of the youthful mind as now exist. The 
teacher of the school, Mr. Kennedy, was an 
Irishman by birth, and herculean in pro- 
portions; erudite and severely positive in 
enunciation. The motto ^^Spare the rod 
and spoil the cliikP^ had no place in his cur- 
riculum. Alike with the tutors of the deaf 
and the blind, he was earnest in the belief 
that learning could be impressively im- 
parted through the sense of feeling. That 
his manner and means were impressive you 
may well believe, when I say that I yet 
have a vivid recollection of a bucket with 
an inch or two of water in it near his desk. 
In it stood an assoirtment of rattan rods, 
their size when selected for use ranging in 



the ratio of the enormity of the offence or 
the age of the offender. 

Among the nian}^ sterling traits of char- 
acter possessed by Mr. Kennedy was econ- 
omy ; the freqnent nse of the rods as he 
raised himself on tiptoe to make his 
protest the more emphatic — split and 
frizzled tliem^ — the immersion of the 
tips in water would prevent this, and 
add to the severity of the castigation, while 
diminishing the expense. A policy wiser 
and less drastic has taken the place of cor- 
poral punishment in schools. But Mr. Ken- 
nedy was competent, faithful and im- 
partial. I was not destined to remain long 
at school. At eight years of age two events 
occurred which gave direction to my after 
life. On a Sunday in April, 1831, my father 
desired that the family attend his church; 
we did so and heard him preach, taking as 
his text the 16tli verse of Chapter 37 in 
Genesis: ^^I seek my brethren; tell me, I 
praj' thee, where they feed their flocks.'' 

On the following Sunday he lay before 
the pulpit from whence he had preached, 
cold in death, leaving my mother, who had 
poor health, Avitli four small children, and 
little laid by ^^for a rainy day.'' Unable to 
remain long at school, I was ^^put out" to 
hold and drive a doctor's horse at three 
dollars a month, and was engaged in sim- 
ilar employment until I reached sixteen 
years of age. Of the loving devotion and 
self-sacrifice of an invalid mother I have 
not words to express, but certain it is, that 



should it ever appear that I have done any- 
thing to revere, or aught to emulate, it 
should be laid on the altar of her Christian 
character, her ardent love of liberty and in- 
tense aspiration .for the upbuilding of the 
race. For her voice and example was an 
educator along all the lines of racial prog- 

Needing our assistance in her enfeebled 
condition, she nevertheless insisted that my 
brother and myself should learn the car- 
penter trade. At this period in the career of 
youth, the financial condition of whose pa- 
rents or sponsors is unequal to their further 
pursuit of scholastic studies, it is not with- 
out an anxious solicitude they depart from 
the parental roof. For the correct example 
and prudent advice may not be invulner- 
abel to the temptation for illicit pleasures 
or ruinous conduct. Happy will he be who 
listens to the admonitions of age. Unfor- 
tunately by the action of response, sad in 
its humor, too often is: I like the advice 
but prefer the experience. 

The foundation of the mechanical knowl- 
edge possessed by the Negro was laid in the 
Southern States. During slavery the mas- 
ter selecting those with natural ability, the 
most apt, with white foremen, had them 
taught carpentering, blacksmi thing, paint- 
ing, boot and shoe making, coopering, and 
other trades to utilize on the plantations, 
or add to their value as property. Many of 
these would hire themselves by the year 
from their owners, contract on their own 



account, and by thrift purchase their free- 
dom, emigrate and teach colored youths of 
Northern States, where prejudice contin- 
ues to exclude them from the workshops, 
while at the South the substantial ware- 
house and palatial dwelling from base to 
dome, is often the creation of his brain and 
the product of his handiwork. 

James Gibbons, of the class above re- 
ferred to, and to whom we Avere appren- 
ticed, was fat, and that is to saj-, he was 
jolly. He had ever a word of kind encour- 
agement, wise counsel or assistance to 
give his employees. Harshness, want of 
sympathy or interest is often the precur- 
sor and stimulator to the many troubles 
with organized labor that continue to par- 
alyze so many of our great industrial con- 
cerns at the present time, resulting in dis- 
tress to the one and great material loss to 
the other. Mr. Gibbons had but a linlited 
edu'cation, but he possessed that aptitude, 
energy, and efficiency which accomplishes 
great objects, that men call genius, and 
which is ofttimes nothing more than un- 
tiring mental activity harnessed to inten- 
sity of purpose. These constituted his grasp 
of much of the intricacies of mechani'cal 
knowledge. His example was ever in evi- 
dence, by word and action, that onl}^ by as- 
sidious effort could young men hope to 
succeed in the battle of life. 

Mr. Gibbons was competent and had 
large patronage. We remained with him 
until we reached our majority. During a 
religious revival we both became converted 



and joined the Presbj' terian Oluircli. My 
brother entered Dartmouth College, under 
the auspices of the Presbyterian Assembly, 
graduated and ministered in the church at 
Philadelphia. After a brief period as a 
journeyman, I became a contractor and 
builder on my own account. It is ever a 
source of strength for a young person to 
liave faith in his or her possibilities, and as 
soon as may be, assume mastership. 

^Mlile remaining subject to orders, the 
stimulus is lacking for that aggressive 
(^nergy, indispensable to bring to the front. 
Temporary failure you may have, for fail- 
ure lies in wait for all human effort, but 
sneaks from a Avise and unconquerable de- 
termination. We read of the military 
prisoner, alone, dejected, and despairing, 
looking to the walls of his cell ; he watches 
a score of attempts and failure of a spider 
to scale the wall, only to renew an attempt 
crowned Avith success. The lesson was 
fruitful for the prisoner. ^ 

Mr. Gibbons built several of the colored 
churches in Philadelphia, and in the early 
forties, during my apprenticeship, he was 
a bidder for the contract to build the first 
African Methodist Episcopal brick church 
of the connection on the present site at 
Sixth and Lombard streets in Philadelphia. 
A wooden structure which had been trans- 
formed from a blacksmith shop to a meet- 
ing house was torn down to give place to 
the new structure. When a boy I had often 
been in the old shop, and have heard the 
founder, Bishop Allen, preacli in the 



wooden building. He was much reverenced. 
I remember his appearance, and his feeble, 
shambling gait as he approached the close 
of an illustrious life. 

The A. M. E. Church was distinctively 
the pioneer in the career of colored 
churches; its founders the first to typify 
and unflinchingly assert the brotherhood of 
man and the Fatherhood of God. Dragged 
from their knees in the white churches of 
their faith, they met exclusion by cohesion; 
ignorance by effort for culture, and pov- 
erty by unflinching self-denial; justice and 
right harnessed to such a movement, who 
shall declare its ultimatum. 

Out from that blacksmitli shop went an 
inspiration lifting its votaries to a self- 
reliance founded on God, a harbinger of 
hope to the enslaved. 

From Allen to Payne, and on and on 
along lines of Christian fame, its mission- 
aries going from triumph to triumph in 
America, and finally planting its standard 
on the isles of the sea. 

A distinct line is ever observable between 
civilization and barbarism, in the regard 
and reverence for the dead, the increase of 
solicitude is evidence of a people's advance- 
ment. Until the year 1848 the colored peo- 
ple of Philadelphia used the grounds, al- 
ways limited, in the rear of their churches 
for burial. They necessarily became crowd- 
ed, with sanitary conditions threatening, 
without opportunity to fittingly mark and 
adorn the la^st resting place of their dead. 



lu the above year G. W. Gaines, J. P. 
Humphries, and the writer j)urchasecl a 
tar<ct of land on the north side of Lancaster 
turnpike, in A\'est Pliiladelpliia, and were 
incorporated under the following act by the 
Legislature of the State of Pennsylvania: 
^^An Act to incorporate the Olive Cemetery 
Company/" folloAved by the usual reserva- 
tions and conditions in such cases provided. 
Among reasons inducing me to refer to this 
are, first, to give an idea of the propriety 
and progress of the race fifty years ago, and 
secondly, for the further and greater rea- 
sons, as the following will show, that the 
result of the project was not only a palla- 
dium for blessed memor}^ of the dead, but 
was the nucleus of a benefaction thnt still 
blesses the living. 

The land was surveyed and laid out in 
lots and avenues, plans of gothic design 
were made for chapel and superintendent's 
residence, and contract for construction 
was awarded the writer. The project was 
not entirely an unselfish one, but profit 
was not the dominating incentive. After 
promptly completing the contract with the 
shareholders as to buildings and improve- 
ments of the ground, the directors found 
themselves in debt, and welcomed the ad- 
vent of Stephen Smith, a wealthy colored 
man and lumber merchant, to assist in 
liquidating liabilities. To him an unoccu- 
pied portion of the ground was sold, and 
in his wife's heart the conception of a 
bounteous charity was formed. The ^^Old 



Folks' Home,'' so beneficent to the aged 
l)oor of riiiladelpliia, demands more than 
a passing notice. 

^^T'he Harriet Smith Home for Aged and 
Infirm Colored Persons'' is a continuation 
of a charity organiz(Ml Sej)t(*mb(n', ISOl, 
and the first board of managers (a n()l)le 
band of humanitarians) elected. The pr(^- 
amble was as follows: ^^For the relief of 
that worthy class of colored persons wlio 
have endeavored througli life to maintain 
themselves, but Avho, from various caus<^s, 
are finally dependent on the charitj^ of 
others, an association is liereby oi'ganized." 
The work of this lionie was conductcMl in a 
large dAvelling liouse on South Front stre^^t 
until the year 1871, when, through tlie 
munificence of Stephen Sniitli and liis wife, 
the land on the corner of l^elmont ami 
Girard avenues, previously purchas(Hl fi-om 
the Olive Cemetery Company, together- 
with a large four-story building, valued at 
140,000, was given to the Board. In 
1871 it was opened as the ^^Harriet Smiili 
Home," where it still stands as an endui* 
ing monument to the original donors, and 
other blessed friends of the race^ who have 
continued to assist with generous endow- 
ments. Edward T. Parker, who died in 
1887, gave |85,000 for au annex to the 
building. Colored people since its in- 
cipiency have given |200,000. The board is 
composed of white and colored persons. 
On a recent visit I found the home com- 
plete, convenient, and cleanh' in all its ap- 



purtenances, with an air of comfort and 
contentment pervading? the place. From 
many with bent and decrepit bodies, from 
wrinkled and withered faces, the sparkling 
eve of f>;Tatitude could be seen, and prayer 
of thankfulness read; for this product of a 
benign clemency that had blessed both 
tlie giver and receiver. There can be no one 
witli filial affection happy in the thought 
that it is in their power to assuage the 
pain or assist the tottering steps of their 
OAvn father or mother, but will recognize 
the humanity. Christian cliaracter, and un- 
selfishness of the men and women organ- 
ized for giving the lielping hand to the 
"unfortunate aged, made dependent by 
blameless conditions.'' 

During my apprenticeship, aware of my 
educational deficiencies, having been un- 
able to pursue a consecutive course of study 
in earlier life, I spent much of the night and 
odd times in an endeavor to make up the 
loss. Tn joining the Philadelphia Library 
Company, a literary society of colored men, 
containing men of such mental caliber as 
Isaiah O. Wear, Frederick Hinton, Kobert 
Purvis, J. C. Bowers, and others, where 
questions of moment touching the condi- 
tion of the race were often discussed with 
acumen and eloquence, I was both bene- 
fited and stimulated. It was a needed 
help, for man is much the creature of his 
environments, and what widens his horizon 
as to the inseparable relations of man to 
man and the mutuality of obligation, 



streiigtliens his manhood in the ratio he 
embraces opportunity. 

Pennsylvania being a border State, and 
Philadeli>hia situated so near the line 
separating the free and slave States, that 
city Avas utilized as the most important ad- 
junct or way-station of the ^^underground 
railroad/' an organization to assist run- 
away slaves to the English colony of Can- 
ada. Say what you will against old Eng- 
land, for, like all human polity, there is 
much for censure and criticism, but this we 
know, that when there were but few 
friends responsive, and but few arms that 
offered to succor when hunted at home, 
old England threw open her doors, reached 
out her hand, and bid the wandering fugi- 
tive slave to come in and ^^be of good 

As one of the railroad company men- 
tioned, many cases came under my observa- 
tion, and some under my guidance to safety 
in Canada. One of the mo>st peculiar and 
interesting ones that came under b}^ notice 
and attention, was that of William and El- 
len Craft, fugitives from the State of Geor- 
gia. Summoned one day to a colored board- 
ing house, I was presented to a person 
dressed in immaculate black broadcloth 
and silk beaver hat, whom I supposed to be 
a 3"oung white man. By his side stood a 
young colored man with good features and 
rather commanding presence. The first 
was inlroduec'd to me as Mrs. Craft and the 
other as her husband, two escaped slaves. 



They had traveled through on car and boat, 
paying and receiving flrst-class accommo- 
dations. Mrs. Craft, being fair, assumed 
the habit of young master coming north as 
an invalid, and as she had never learned to 
write, her arm was in a sling, thereby 
avoiding the usual signing of register on 
boat or at hotel, while her servant-husband 
was as obsequious in his attentions as the 
most humble of slaves. They settled in 
Boston, living very happily, until the pas- 
sage of the fugitive slave law in 1850, when 
they were compelled to flee to England. 

The civil war of 1861 and proclamation 
of freedom followed. In 1870, ariving in 
Savannah, Georgia, seeking accommoda- 
tion, I was directed to a hotel, and sur- 
prised to find the host and hostess my 
whilom friends of underground railroad 
fame. They had returned to their old home 
after emancipation. The surprise was pleas- 
ant and recognition mutual. 

One other, and I shall pass this feature 
of remini^^cence. It was that of William 
Brown, distinguished afterward as Wil- 
liam Box Brown, the intervening ^^Box'' be- 
ing a synonym of the manner of his escape. 
An agent of the underground railroad at 
Richmond, Virginia, had placed him in a 
box two feet wide and four feet long, ends 
hooped, with holes for air, and bread and 
water, and sent him through the express 
company to Philadelphia. On the arrival 
of the steamboat the box was roughly 
tumbled off as so much dead frieght on the 



Avliarf, but, iinfortiinatelj for Brown, on the 
end, with his feet up and head down. After 
remaining in such position for a time Avhich 
seemed to liim hours, he heard a man say 
to another, ^^Let's turn tliat box down and 
sit on it.'^ It was done, and Brown found 
himself ^^riglit side up,'' if not ^Syitli care.'' 
1 was called to the anti-slavery office, where 
the box was taken. It had been arranged 
that when he arrived at his destination, 
three slow and distinct knocks should be 
given, to which he was to respond. Fear 
that he was crippled or dead Avas depicted 
in the faces of Miller McKim, William Still 
and a few others that stood around the box 
in the office. Hence it was not without tre- 
pidation the agreed signal was given, and 
the response waited for. An ^^all right" 
was clieerilj^ given; the lifting of suspense 
and the top of the box was almost simul- 
taneous. Out sprang a man weighing near 
200 pounds. Brown, though uneducated, it 
is needless to say, Avas imbued with the 
spirit of liberty, and with much natural 
ability, Avitli his box he traveled and spoke 
of his experience in slavery, the novelty of 
his escape adding interest to his descrip- 
tion. Many simitar cases of heroism in 
manner of escape of men and Avomen are 
recorded in William Still's ^^Underground 




The immortal bard has snug that ^there's 
a destiiij^ that shapes our eiids.V- At eight 
years of age, as alreadj' stated, iwo events 
occurred which had much to do in giving 
direction to my after life. The one the 
death of my father, as formerly mentioned; 
the other the insurrection of Nat Turner, of 
South Hampton, A^irginia, in August, 1831, 
which fell upon the startled sense of the 
slaveholding South like a meteor from a 
clear sky, causing Avidespread commotion. 
Nat Turner was a Baptist preacher, who 
with four others, in a lonelj^ j)lace in the 
woods, concocted plans for an uprising of 
the slaves to secure their liberty. Em- 
ployed in the woods during the week, a 
prey to his broodings over tlie Avrongs and 
cruelties, the branding and Avhipping to 
death of neighboring slaves, he Avould come 
out to meetings of his people on Sunday 
and preach, impressing much of his spirit of 
unrest. Finall}^ he selected a\larg<^ num- 
ber of confederates, Avho Avere to secretly 
acquire arms of tlieir masters. The attack 
concocted in February was not made until 
August 20, Avhen the assault, dealing death 
and destruction, Avas made. 



All that night tho}' inariched, carrying 
consternation and dread on account of the 
suddenness, determination and boldness of 
the atack. The wliole State was aroused, 
and soldiers sent from every part. The 
blacks fought hand to hand with the 
whites, but were soon overpowered by 
numbers and superior implements of war- 
fare. Turner and a few of his followers took 
refuge in the ^^Dismal Swamp,'' almost im- 
penetrable, where they remained two or 
three months, till hunger or despair com- 
pelled them to surrender. Chained to- 
gether, they were taken to the South- 
Hampton Court House and arraigned^ 
Turner, it is recorded, without a tvem^i% 
pleaded not guilty, believing th^t he 
was justified in the atemjjt/to lib- 
erate his people, lioAvever drastic the 
means. His act, which would have been 
heralded as the noblest heroism if perpe- 
trated by a white man, was called religious 
fanatacisni and fiendish brutality. 

Turner called but few into his confidence, 
and foolhardy^ and unpromising as the at-^ 
tempt may have been, it had the ring of an 
lieroic purpose that gave a Bos Milu s to 
Greet*e, and a Washington to America. A 
purpose ^^not born to die,'' but to live on in 
every age and clime, stimulating endeavors 
to attain the blessings of civil liberty. 

It was an incident as unexpected in its 
advent as startling in its terrors. Slavery, 
ever the preponderance of force, had hither- 
to reveled in a luxury heightened by a 



sense of security. Now, in tlie moaning of 
the wind, tlie rustling of tlie leaves or the 
shado^vs of the moon, was heard or seen a 
liberator. Nor was this uneasiness con- 
fined to the South, for in the border free 
States there were many that in Avhole or in 
part owned plantations stocked with 

In Philadelphia, so near the line, excite- 
ment rah high. The intense interest de- 
picted in the face of my mother and lier 
colored neighbors; the guarded Avhisper- 
ings, the denunciations of slavery, the hope 
defeated of a successful j^evolution keenly 
affected my juvenile mind, and stamped 
my soul with hatred to slavery. 

At 12 j^ears of age I was emploj^ed at the 
residence of Sydney Fisher, a prominent 
Philadelphia lawyer, who Avas one of the 
class above mentioned, living north and 
owning a plantation in the State of Mary- 
land. Over a good road of 30 miles one 
summer's day, he took me to his plantation. 
I had never before been that distance from 
home and had anticipated mj long ride 
with childish interest and pleasure. After 
crossing the line and entering ^^the land of 
cotton and the corn,'' a new and strange 
panorama began to open, and conlinued to 
enfold the vast fields \)edecked in the snowy 
Avhiteness of their fruitage.! While over 
gangs of slaves in row and furrough were 
drivers Avitli their scourging Avhip in hand. 
I looked upon the scene with curious won- 
der. Three score of years and more have 



passed, but 1 still see that sad and humbled 
throng, working close to the roadway, no 
head daring to uplift, no eye to enquiringly 
gaze. During all those miles of drive that 
bordered on phintations, as machines they 
acted, as machines they looked. My 
curiosity and youthful impulse ignoring 
^that reticence becoming a servant, I said: 
^^Mr. Fisher, who are these people He 
said, ^^Thej' are slaves.'' I was startled but 
made no reply. I had not associated the ex- 
hilaration of the drive with a depressing 
view of slavery, but his repl^^ caused a tu- 
mult of feeling in my youthful breast. The 
.Turner episode of which I had heard so 
much, the narratives of whippings re- 
ceived by fugitives, slaves that had 
come to my mother's house, the sun 
dering of family ties on the auction 
block, were vividly presented to my 
mind. I remained silent as to speech, as 
to feelings belligerent. A few moments 
elapsed and Mr. Fisher broke the silence 
l)y saying, ^^Mifflin, how would you like to 
l)e a slave?'' My answer was quick and 
conformed to feeling. would not be a 
slave! 1 would kill anybody that would 
make me a sla ve I" Fitly spoken. No 
grander declaration T have ever made. But 
from whom did it come — from almost child- 
ish lips with no power to execute. I little 
thought of or knew the magnitude of that 
utterance, nor did I notice then the effect 
of its force. Quickly and qnite sternly 
tcaiuie ilie reply: '"You must not talk that 


*'The Groat Liberator." 
*'I Will not Excusi\ I Will Not Retreat a Single Inch: I Will Be Hetxrd" 
"Emancipation the Right of the Slave and Duty of the Master" — "He 
Made Every Sin.2:le Home, Press, Pulpit, and Senate Cham- 
ber a Debating Society with His Right and 
Wrong for t]ie Subject." 



-way down here.'- I was kept during our 
-stay in what was known during slavery 
;:as the ^^great house/' the masters resi- 
dence, and my meals were eaten at the 
table he had quit, slept in the same house, 
and had, if desired, little or no opportunity 
to talk or mingle with the slaves during 
the week's visit. I did not understand at 
that time the philosophy of espionage, but 
in after years it became quite apparent that 
from my youthful lips had came the ^^open 
sesame to the door of liberty,'' ^^resistance 
to oppression," the slogan that has ever 
heralded the advent of freedom. 

As I passed to manhood the object lesson 
encountered on the Maryland plantation 
did much to intensify jny hatred of slavery 
and to strengthen my resolution to ally my- 
self with any effort for its abolition. The 
burning of Pennsylvania Hall by a mob in 
Philadelphia, in 1838, built and used by 
anti-slavery people, the ravages of what 
was known as the ^^Moyamensing Killers,'^ 
who burned down the churches and resi- 
dences of the colored people and murdered 
their occupants, did much to increase the 
anti-slavery feeling. 

Old iiethel Church, then the nursery of 
the present great A. M. E. Church, was 
!guarded day and night by its devoted men 
and women Avorsliipers. The cobble street 
pavement in front was dug up and the 
stones carried up and placed at the 
windows in the gallery to hurl at the mob. 
"This defense was sustained for several 



weeks at a time. Every American should 
be happy in the thought that a higher civi- 
lization is making such acts less and less 
frequent. It is not strange that our pres- 
ent generation enjoying a large measure of 
civil and political liberty can but faintly 
comprehend the condition fifty years ago, 
when they were persistently denied. The 
justice of participation seems so apparent 
it is not easy to fully conceive, when all 
Avere refused, in quite all that Avere de- 
nominated free States. 

When street cars were first established 
in Philadelphia ^^the brother in black" was 
refused accommodations. He nevertheless 
persisted in entering the cars. Sometimes 
he would be thrown out, at others, after be- 
ing ^^sized up'^ the driver with his horses 
would leave his car standing on switch, 
while its objectionable occupant was 
^^monarch of all he surveyed.'' 

The ^'man and brother'' finding his enemy 
impervious to direct attack, commenced a 
flank movement. As he was not allowed to 
ride inside, he resolved to ride alongside; 
bought omnibuses and stock and establish- 
ed a line on the car route at reduced rates. 
The cars were not always on time, and 
many whites would avail themselves of its 
service. I remember one of this class accost- 
ing a driver: ^^What 'Bus is this?" The sim- 
ple driver answered, "It is the colored peo- 
ples!" "I don't care whose in the it 

is, does it go to the bridge? I am in a hurry 
to get there," and in he got. I thought then 



and still think what a useful moral the inci- 
dent conveyed to my race. Labor to make 
yourself as indispensable as possible in all 
your relations with the dominant race and 
color will cut less and less figure in your up- 
ward grade. The line was kept up for some 
time, often holding what was called ^^omni- 
bus meetings'' in our halls, always largely 
attended, make reports, hear spirited 
speeches, and have a deal of fun narrating 
incidents of the line, receiving generous 
contributions when the horses or busses 
needed replenishing. But the most excit- 
ing times were those Avhen there had been 
interference with the running of the "un- 
derground railroad,'' and the attempt to 
capture passengers in transit, or at the dif- 
ferent way-stations, of which as previously 
stated, Philadelphia Avas the most promi- 
nent in forwarding its patrons to Canada. 

Before the passage of the fugitive slave 
law, in 1850, if the fugitive was taken back 
it was done by stealth — kidnapped and 
spirited away by clandestine means. Some- 
times by the treachery of his own color, but 
this was seldom and unhealthy. The agent 
of the owner was often caught in the act, 
and by argument more emphatic than gen- 
tle, was soon conspicuous by his absence. 
At others local anti-slavery friends would 
appeal to the courts, and the agent would 
be arrested. Slaverj^ in law being local be- 
fore the passage of the "Act of 1850," mak- 
ing it national, we were generally success- 
ful in having the fugitives released. 


We were extremeh^ fortunate in having for 
our cliief counsel David Paul Brown, a 
leader of the Philadelphia bar, who, with 
other white friends, never failed to respond 
to our call; learned in Constitutional law, 
eloquent in expression, lie did a yeoman's 
service in behalf of liberty. 

The colored men of Pennsyh^ania, like 
their brethren in other Northern States, 
were not content in being disfranchised. As 
early as 18^5 a committee of seven, consist- 
ing of Isaiah 0. Wear, J. C. Bowers, and 
others, including the writer, were sent to 
the capitol at Harrisburg to lay a petition 
before the Legislature asking for enfran- 
chisement and all rights granted to others 
of the commonwealth. The grant was 
tardy, but it came with the cannon's boom 
and musketrj^'s iron hail, when the im- 
periled status of the nation made it impera- 
tive. Thus, as ever, with the immutable de- 
crees of God,whilebattling for the freedom 
of the slave, we broadened our conscious- 
ness, not only as to the inalienable rights 
of human nature, but received larger con- 
ceptions of civil liberty, coupled with a- 
spirit of determination to defend our homes- 
and churches from infuriated mobs, and to 
contend for civil and political justice. 

They were truly a spartan band, the 
colored men and women. Tlie naming of a 
few would be invidious to the many wha 
were ever keenly alive to the proscription 
to which they were subject, and ever on th^ 



alert for measures to awaken tlie moral 
sense of the border States. 

Meeting's were nightly held for counsel, 
protests and assistance to the fugitive, 
who Avould sometimes be present to narrate 
the woes of slavery. Sometimes our meet- 
ings would be attended by pro-slavery look- 
ers-on, usually unknown, until excoriation 
of the Northern abettors of slavery was too 
severe to allow them to remain incognito, 
when they would reply: It is a sad com- 
mentary on a phase of liunuin nature tliat 
the oppressed often, when vaulted into au- 
thority or greater equality of condition, be- 
come the most vicious of oppressors. It 
has been said that Negro drivers were most' 
cruel and unsparing to rlieir race. The 
Irish, having fled from oppression in the 
land of their birth, for notoriety, gain, or 
elevation by comparison, were nearly all 
pro-slavery. At one of our meetings dur- 
ing the narration of incidents of his life by 
a fugitive, lon^ of the latter class interrupted 
b}^ saying, ^^\ren't you lying, my man? I 
have been on plantations. I guess your 
master did not lose much when you left.'^ 
Now, it is a peculiarrity of the uneducated, 
when, puzzled for the moment, by the tar- 
diness of an idea, to scratch the head. Ja- 
cobs, the fugitive, did so, and out it came. 
^^I dunno how much he lost, onlj^ what 
master said. I was the house boy, one day, 
and at dinner time he sent me to the well 
to get a cool pitcher of water. I let the 
silver pitcher drop in the well. Well, I 



knowed that pitcher had to be got 
oiitj so I straddled down and fislied 
it up. Master was mad, \*anse I 
staid so h)ng, so I up and tells hinu 
He fairly jumped and said ^^Did jon go 
down that Avell? Why didn't you come 
and tell me and I would made Irish ]\[ike, 
the ditcher, go down. If you had drowned 
1^1 lost 1800. Don't you do that agin." 

It is needless to say that this ^^brought 
down the house/' and shortly the exit of the 
son of the Emerald Isle. At another time 
the interrupter said: ^^Will you answer me 
a question or two? Did you not get enough 
to eat?" ^^Yes." "A place to sleep?" ^^Yes." 
^'Was your master good or bad to you?" 
.r "Marster was pretty good, I mnst say." 
/ ^'Well, what else did you want? That is a 
good deal more than a good many white 
men get up here." The man stood for a mo- 
ment busy with his Angers in a fruitless at- 
tempt to find the fugitive ends of a cnrl of 
his hair, temporarily nonplussed at liis 
palliating concessions, half apologetically 
said: ^^Well, I think it a heap best to be 
free." Tlien suddenly and gallantly 
strengthening his defense; ^^but, look here. 
Mister, if you think it so nice down there, 
^ my place is still open." The questioner 
good naturedh^ joined in the general merri- 

Very frequently we were enthused and 
inspired by Frederick Pouglass, Henry 
Highland Garnett, Marteu^R. Delaney, and 
Charles 1.. llemond, an illustrious quartet 



of the hallowed band iu the anti-slaverv 
crusade, whose eloquence, devotion, and ef- 
fectiveness stood unsurpassed. 

There were few, if any, available halls for 
these meetings. The only resort was the 
colored churches. Those under the auspices 
of white denominations had members who 
objected to their use for such a purpose. 
Craven and fawning, content with the 
crumbs that fell from these peace-loving 
Christians, who deprecated the discussion 
of slavery while thej ignored the claim of 
outraged humanity, these churches were 
more interested in the physical excitement 
of a ^^revivaP' than in listening to appeals 
in behalf of God's poor and lonely. Their 
prototypes that ^'passed by on the other 
side'' have been perpetuated in many 
climes, in those who believe that it is the 
formalities of contact with the building 
that blesses a people and not the Godliness 
and htimanity of the worshippers that give 
glory and efficacy to the church. An an- 
tagonism tlius created resulted in a crusade 
against such churches styled ^*Come-Outer- 
ism,'' and many left them on account of 
such apathy to carry on the warfare amid 
congenial association. 

It has been said that citizenship was pre- 
cipitated upon the Xegro before he was fit 
for its exercise. Without discussing the in- 
congrtti ty of this, when applied to the igno- 
rant native Xegro and not to the ignorant 
alien emigrant, it may be conceded that 



keeping tliem in abject bondage with no op- 
portunity to protest, made slavery any- 
thing but a preparatory school for the exer- 
cises of civic virtues, or the assumption of 
their responsibilities. It was not true, how- 
ever, Avith the mass in the free, or many in 
the slave States. Always akin and adjunct 
are the yearnings indestructible in human 
nature for equal rights. And in every age 
and people the ratio of persistency and 
sacrifice have been the measure of their fit- 
ness for its enjoyment. During 25 years 
preceding the abolition of slavery the color- 
ed people of the free States, though much 
proscribed, were active in their protests 
against enslavement, seizing every cliance 
througli press and forum ^^to pour the liv- 
ing coals of truth upon the nation's naked 
heart,'' setting forth in earnest contrast the 
theory upon which the government was 
founded with its administration as prac- 

In 1848 Philadelphia Square, wliereon the 
old vState House of historic fame still 
stands, Avas made resonant by the bell upon 
whose surface the fathers had inscribed 
'Proclaim liberty throughout the world 
and to all the inhabitants thereof," and 
Avas bedecked Avitli garlands and every in- 
signia of a joyful people in honor of the 
Hungarian patriot, Louis Kossuth. Dis- 
tinctive platforms had been erected for 
speakers Avhose fatherland Avas in many 
foreign lands. Upon each Avas an orator re- 
ceiving the appreciation and plaudits of an 



audience whose hearts beat as one for suc- 
cess to the '^Great Liberator/' The ^^u^n- 
welcome guests/' the colored men present, 
quickly embraced the opportunity, utilizing 
for a platform a dry goods box, upon which 
I w^as placed to give the Xegro version of 
this climax of inconsistencj^ and quintes- 
sence of hj^pocrisy. This AVas the unex- 
pected. All the people, both native and 
foreign, had been invited and special 
places provided for all except the 
Negro, and on the native platform 
he was not allowed space. The novel- 
ty of the incident and curiosity to hear what 
the colored man had to say quickly drew a 
crowd equal to others of the occasion^ 
Then, as now, and perhaps forever, there 
was that incalculable number of non-com- 
mittals whose moral sense is disturbed by 
popular wrong, but who are without cour- 
age of conviction, inert, waiting for a leader 
that they may be one of the two that take 
place behind him, or one of three or four, or* 
ten, who follow in serried ranks, that con- 
stitute the Avedge-like motor that splits a.s- 
sunder hoary wrong, proximity to the*^ 
leader being in ratio to their moral fibre. 
Most of the audience listened to the utter- 
ance of sentiments that the allurements of 
trade, or the exactions of society, forbader 
them to disseminate. 

The occasion was an excellent one to 
demonstrate the heartlessness of the 
projectors, who, while pretending to 
glorify liberty in the distance, w^ere^ 


treating it with contumely at home, where 
3,000,000 shives were held in bondage, and 
feeling keenly the ostracism of the slave as 
beyond the pole of popular sympathy or na- 
tional compassion, with words struggling 
for utterance,! spoke as best I could, receiv- 
ing toleration, and a quiet measure of ap- 
probation, possibly on the supposition, 
realized in the fruition of time, that such 
discussion might eventuate in the libera- 
tion of white men from the octopus of sub- 
serviency to the dictum of slavery which 
permeated every ramification of American 
society. I heard Hon. Cassius M. Clay, of 
Kentucky, sometime in the forties, while 
making a speech in Philadelphia, say: 
^^Gentlemen, the question is not alone 
whether the Negroes are to remain slaves, 
but whether we white men are to continue 
free." So bitter was the onslaught on all, 
and especially on white men, politically 
iind socially, who dared denounce slavery. 




An event that came under my notice of 
startling character, attracting national at- 
tention, was the arrival of the schooner 
"Amistad'^ at Philadelphia in 1840. This 
vessel had been engaged in the slave trade. 
With a cargo of slaves from Africa was 
destined for one of the West India Islands. 
Cinguez, one of, and at the head of the cap- 
tives, rebelled while at sea, killing a num- 
ber of the crew and taking possession of the 

In the concluding scene of the foregoing 
drama, Mr. Douglass was an actor, I an ob- 
server. After the decision giving themi 
their liberty, the anti-slavery society, who 
had been vigilant in its endeavors to have 
them liberated ever since their advent on 
American shores, held a monster meeting 
to receive them. ' 

Frederick Douglass introduced ^^Cin- 
guez'^ to the meeting. I cannot forget or fail 
to feel the inspiration of that scene. The 
two giants locked in each others embrace, 
looked the incarnation of heroism and 
dauntless purpose, equal to the achieve- 
ment of great results. The one by indomita- 
ble will had shaken off his own shackles 
and was making slavery odius by his 


matchless and eloquent arraignment; 
the other, ^'a leader of men/^ had 
now written his protest with the 
blood of his captors. Cinguez, with un- 
mtelligable utterance in African dialect 
with emphatic gesture, his liberty loving 
soul on fire, while burning words strove 
for expression, described his action on the 
memorable night of his emancii)ation, 
with such vividness, power, and pathos 
that the audience seemed to see every act 
of the drama and feel the pulsation of his 
great heart. Through an interpreter he 
afterwards narrated his manner of taking 
the vessel, and how it happened to reach 
American shores. How, after taking the 
ship, he stood by the tiller with drawn 
weapon and commanded the mate to steer 
back to Africa. During the day he com- 
plied, but at night took the opposite 
course. After sometime of circuitous wan- 
dering the vessel ran into Long Island 
Sound and was taken possession of by the 
TJnited States authorities. Cinguez, as 
liero and i)atriot, enobled African charac- 

When majority dnd the threshold of 
man's estate is attained, the transition 
ifrom advanced youth to the entry of man- 
Tiood is liable to casualties; not unlike a 
T3ark serenely leaving its home harbor to 
'enter unfrequented waters, the crew 
exhilarated by fresh and invigorating 
Ibreezes, charmed by a genial sky, it moves 
<fOn "like a thing of beauty'' with the hope 



of ^^joy forever.'' The chart and log of 
many predecessors maj unlieeded lie at 
hanclj but the glorious present, cloudless 
and fascinating, rich in expectation, it 
sails on, fortunate if it escapes the rocks 
and shoals that ever lie in wait. It is un- 
reasonable to expect a proper conception, 
and the happiest performance of life's 
duties at such a period, especially from 
those with easy and favorable environ- 
ments, or who have been heedless of paren- 
tal restraint, for even at an advanced 
stage in life, there have been many to ex- 
claim with a poet : | 
"Ne'er tell me of evening serenely adorning 
The close of a life richly mellowed by time. 
Give me back, give me back the wild fresh- 
ness of morning 
Her smiles and her tear^ are worth even- 
ing's best light." 
Twenty-one years of age found me the 
possessor of a trade, an attainment, and a 
capital invaluable for a poor young man 
beginning the race of life. For whether 
seen smutted by the soot of the blacksmith 
shop, or whitened by the lime of the 
plasterer or bricklayer; whether bending 
beneath tool box of the carpenter or 
ensconced on the bench of the shoemaker, 
he has a moral strength, a consciousness 
of acquirement, giving him a dignitj' of 
manhood unyjossessed hj the menial and 
those engaged in unskilled labor. Let it 
never be forgotten that as high over in im- 
portance as the best interest of the race is- 



to that of the iuclividiial, will be the uplift- 
ing influence of assicluouslj^ cultivating a 
desire to obtain trades. The crying want 
with us is a middle class. The chief com- 
ponent of our race today is laborers un- 
skilled. We will not and cannot compete 
with other races who have a large and in- 
fluential class of artisans and mechanics, 
and having received higher remuneration 
for labor, have paved the way for them- 
selves or offsprings from the mechanic to 
the merchant or to the professional. These 
three factors, linked and interlinked, an 
ascending chain will be strong in its rela- 
tion, as consistent in construction. 

In 1849 Frederick Douglass, Charles 
Lenox Remond and Julia Griffith, an Eng- 
lish lady prominent in reform circles in 
England, attended the National Anti- 
slavery Convention held in Philadelphia, 
and presided over by that apostle of lib- 
erty, Wm. Lloyd Garrison. At its close 
Mr. Douglass invited me to accompany 
him to his home at Eocliester, and then to 
join him in lecturing in the ^^Western Re- 

Without salary, poor in purse, doubtful 
of useful ability, dependent for sustenance 
on a sentiment then prevailing, that for 
anti-slavery expression was as reserved as 
the ^^Reserve-' was Western. I have often 
thought of my feelings of doubt and fear 
to go with ]\rr. Douglass, as an epoch in my 
life's histoiy. The parting of the ways, 
the embarkation to a ^vider fteld of action, 

"Sago of AivaeoKtia." 

ho Most Disiiugui.shod Negro of the Race— As Statesman, Editor, Orator, IMiil 
aiithropist He Left an Indelible Marlv on tlie Page of Hiis Country's 
History— Born in 1817 at Tnol^alioe. Maryland— Died Febrn- 
ary, 1895 — He was Author of "My Bondage and My 
Freedoni." "Life and Tinn^s of .Frederick 

Douglass." and Other.4 \jlkO^^ 




the close connection between obedience to 
an impulse of duty (however uninviting or 
uncertain the outcome), and the ever 
moral and often material benefit. 

Eochester proved to be my pathway to 
California. Western New York, 50 years 
ago, then known as the -^Western Re- 
serve,'' was yery unlike the present as to 
population, means of travel, material de- 
velopments, schools of learning, and 
humanizing influences. Mr. Douglass, in 
the Baptist Church in Little Rock, Ark., a 
short time before his death, told how, in 
1849, we there traveled together; that 
where now are stately cities and villages 
a sparsely settled wilderness existed; that 
while we there proclaimed abolition as'the 
right of the slave, the chilling effect of 
those December days were not more cold 
and heartless than the reception we met 
when our mission as advocates for the 
slave became known; churches and halls 
were closed against us. Stables and black- 
smith shops would sometimes hold 
audiences more generous with epithets 
and elderly eggs than with manly de- 
corum. God be thanked, Douglass, the 
grandest of "our grand old men,'' lived to 
see "the seeds of mighty truth have their 
silent undergrowth, and in the earth be 
wrought." A family, however poor, striv- 
ing as best they may to give the rudiments 
of knowledge to their children, should 
have, if but few", books descriptive of the 
hopes and struggles of those no better 



^situated, who have made impress on the 
age in which they lived. We seldom re- 
member from whence we first received the 
idea which gave impulse to an honorable 
action; we received it, however, most 
probably from tongue or pen. For im- 
pressible youth such biography should be 
as easy of access as possible. 

It has been said that " a man's noblest 
mistake is to be born before his time.'' 
This will not apply to Frederick Douglass, 
His ^^Lif e and Times" should be in the 
front rank of selection for blessing and 
inspiration. A blessing for the high moral 
of its teaching; an inspiration for the poor- 
est boy; that he need not ^^beg the world's 
pardon for having been born/' but by fos- 
tering courage and consecration of pur- 
pose may rank the peer of any man." 

Frederick Douglass, born a slave, ham- 
pered by all the depressing influences of 
that institution; by indomitable energy 
and devotion; seizing with an avidity that 
knew no obstacle every opportunity, culti- 
vated a mind and developed a character 
that will be a bright page in the history of 
noble and beneficent achievements. 

For the conditions that confronted him 
and the anti-slavery crusade, have been 
well and eloquently portrayed by the late 
George William Curtis. That how terri- 
bly earnest was the anti-slavery agitation 
this generation little knows. To under- 
stand is to recall the situation of the coun- 
try. Slavery sat supreme in the White 



House and made laws at the capitol. 
Courts of Justice were its ministerSj and 
legislators its lackeys. It silenced the 
preacher in the pulpit; it muzzled the edi- 
tor at his desk, and the professor in his 
lecture-room. It sat a price on the heads 
of peaceful citizens; robbed the mails, and 
denounced the vital principles of the 
declaration of independence as treason. 
In the States where the law did not tol- 
erate slaverj^^ slavery ruled the club 
and drawing room, the factory and the of- 
fice, swaggered at the dinner table, and 
scourged with scorn a cowardly society. 
It tore the golden rule from the school 
books, and from the prayer books the 
pictured benignity of Christ. It prohibited 
schools in the free States for the hated 
race; hunted women who taught children 
to read, and forbade a free people to com- 
municate with their representatives."^^^^---^ 
It was under such conditions so pun- 
gently and truthfully stated that Douglass 
appeared as a small star on the horizon of 
a clouded firmament; rose in intellectual 
brilliancjs mental power and a noble gen- 
erosity. For his devotion was not only to 
the freedom of the slave with which he 
was identified, but for liberty and the bet- 
terment of humanity everywhere, regard- 
less of sex or color. His page already 
luminous in history will continue to 
brighten, and when statuary, now and 
hereafter, erected to his memory, shall 
have crumbled "neath the beatings of 


time;-^ the good fame of his name, liioh 
purpose and unflinching integrity to the 
highest needs of humanity, will remain 
hallowed '^foot prints jjg/'Uhe sands of 
time.'^ Eminently fit a\ as* the naming of 
an institution in Philadelphia '^The Fred- 
erick Douglass Hospital and Freedman's 
School the assuaging of suffering and 
the giving of larger opportunity for tech- 
nical instruction were cherished ideals 
with the sage of Anacostia; also the lives 
of Harriet Beacher Stowe, Lucretia Mott 
and Francis E. Harper, and the noble 
band of A^ omen of which they were the 
type, who braveh^ met social ostracism 
and insult for devotion to the slave, will 
ever have a proud place in our country's 
history. Of this illustrious band was Julia 
Griffith, hitherto referred to, a grand rep- 
resentative of those renowned women, who 
at home or abroad, did so much to hasten 
the downfall of slavery and encourage the 
weak and lowly to hope and effort. Tliack- 
ery has said that, **rould you see every 
man's career, you would find a Avoman 
clogging him, or cheering him, or beckon- 
ing liin) (ui.'' 

Having finished my intended tour with 
Mr. Douglass, and returned to Kochester, 
the outlook for my future, to me, was not 
promising. The opportunities for ad- 
vancement were much, very much less 
than now. With me ambition and dejec- 
tion contended for the mastery, the latter 
toften in the ascendant. To her friendly 



inquiry I gave reasons for my depression. 
I shall never forget the response; almost 
imperious in manner, you could already 
anticipate the magnitude of an idea that 
seemed to struggle for utterance. ^^What! 
discouraged? Go do some great thing.'' It 
was an inspiration, the result of which she 
nmj never have known. We are assured, 
however, that a kind act or helpful word 
is inseparably connected with a blessing 
for the giver. To earnest youth I would 
bequeath the excelsior of the ^^youth mid 
snow and ice," and the above injunction, 
"upward and omvard;-' "go do some great 

The war with Mexico, discovery of gold in 
California in 1848, the acquisition of new 
territory, and the developments of our 
hitherto undeveloped Western posses- 
sions, stimulated the financial pulse, and 
permeated every avenue of industry and 
speculative life. While in New York 
State I met several going and returning 
gold seekers, many giving dazzling ac- 
counts of immense deposits of gold in the 
new Eldorado; and others, as ever the case 
with adventurers, gave gloomy statements 
of peril and disaster. A judicious tem- 
perament, untiring energy, a lexicon of en- 
deavor, in which there is no such word as 
"fail," is the only open sesame to hidden 
opportunities in a new country. Fortune, 
in precarious mood, may sometime smile 
on the inert, but she vseldom fails to sur- 
render to pluck, tenacity and perseverance. 
As the Oxford men say it is the one ])ull 



more of the oar that proves the ^^beefiness 
of the fellow;'' it is the one march more 
that wins the campaign; the five minutes 
more persistent courage that wins the 
fight. / 

I returned to Philadelphia, and ynM\ 
some friendly assistance, sailed, iij/1850, 
from New York, as a steerage pas- 
senger for San Francisco. Arriving at 
Aspinwall, the point of debarkation, on 
the Atlantic side, boats and boatsmen 
were engaged to transport passengers and 
baggage up the ^^Chagress," a small and 
shallow river. Crossing the Isthmus to 
Panama, on the Pacific side, I found Pana- 
ma very cosmopolitan in appearance, for 
mingled with the sombrero-attired South 
American, could be seen denizens from 
every foreign clime. Its make up was a 
combination of peculiar attributes. It was 
dirty, but happy in having crows for its 
scavengers; sickly, but cheery; old, but 
with an youthful infusion. The virtues 
and vices were both shy and unblushing. 
A rich, dark foliage, ev^er blooming, and 
ever decaying; a humid atmosphere; a rot- 
ting vegetation under a tropical sun, 
while fever stalked on from conquest to 

The sudden influx, the great travel from 
ocean to ocean, had given much impetus to 
business as well as to local amusements. 
For the latter, Sunday was the ideal day, 
when bull and cock fights secured the at- 
tendance of the elite, and the humble, the 
priest and the laity. 



The church, preaching gentleness and 
peace in the morning, in the afternoon 
her minister, with sword spurred 
^^bolosed'' bantams under their arms, 
would appear on the scene eager for the 

After recovering from the Panama fever 
I took passage on the steamship '^Golden 
Gate'' for San Francisco. Science, ex- 
perience, and a greath^ increased demand 
have done much during the intervening 
fifty years to lessen risk and increase the 
comfort of ocean travel. Yet it is not 
without a degree of restless anticipation 
that one finds himself and baggage finally 
domiciled on an oce^in-going steamer. 
Curiosity and criticism, selfishness and 
graciousness each in turn assert them- 
selves. Curiosity in espionage, criticism 
in observation, while selfishness and 
graciousness alternate. You find yourself 
in the midst of a miniature world, environ- 
ed, but isolated from activities of the 
greater, an epitome of human proclivities. 
A possible peril, real, imaginary or re- 
mote; a common brotherhood tightens the 
chain of fellowship and gradually widens 
the exchange of amenities. 

We had a stormy passage, making San 
Diego with the top of smoke stack en- 
crusted with the salt of the waves, paddle 
wheel broken and otherwise disabled, 
finally arriving at San Francisco in 





Having made mys^f somewhat pre- 
sentable upon leavhrg the steerage of the 
steamer, my trunfo'on a dray, I proceeded 
to an unprepossessing hotel kept by a 
colored manv/on Kearny street. Tlie 
cursory view from the outside, and the 
further inspection on the inside, reminded 
me of the old lady's description of her 
watch, for she said, ^'it might look pretty 
hard on the outside, but the inside works 
were all right.'' And so thought its jolly 
patrons. Seated at tables, well supplied 
with piles of gold and silver, where numer- 
ous disciples of that ancient trickster 
Pharoah, being dubious perhaps of the 
propriety of adopting the literal ortho- 
graphy of his name, and abbreviated it to 

Getting something for nothing, or risk- 
ing the smaller in hope of obtaining the 
greater, seems a passion inherent in 
human nature, requiring a calm survey of 
the probabilities, and oftimes the baneful 
effects to attain a moral resistance. It is 
the "ignus fatus" that has lured many 
promising ones and wrecked the future of 
many lives. 

The effervescent happiness of some of 



the worshipers at this shrine was con- 
spicuous. The future to them seemed 
cloudless. It was not so with me. I had a 
secret not at all complacent, for it seemed 
anxious to get out, and while unhappy 
from its presence, 1 thought it Avise to re- 
tain it. 

When I approached the bar I asked for 
accommodation, and my trunk Avas 
brought in. While awaiting this prepara- 
tory step to domicile, and gazing at the 
prints and pictures more or less ^^blaser'' 
that adorned the bar, my eye caught a 
notice, prominently placed, in gilt letters. 
I see it now, ^^Board twelve dollars a week 
in advance.'' It was not the price, but the 
stipulation demanded that appalled me. 
Had I looked through a magnifying glass 
the letters could not have appeared larger. 
With the brilliancy of a search light they 
seemed to ask "Who are you and how are 
you fixed?'' I responded by "staring fate 
in the face," and going up to the bar 
asked for a cigar. How much? Ten cents. 
I had sixty cents when I landed; had paid 
fifty for trunk drayage, and I was now a 
moneyless man — hence my secret. 

Would there be strict enforcement of 
conditions mentioned in that ominous 
card. I was unacquainted with the Bohe- 
mian "song and dance" parlance in such 
extremities, and wondered would letting 
my secret come out let a dinner come in. 
Possibly, I may have often been deceived 
when appealed to, but that experience has^ 



often been frnitful to friendless hunger. 

Finally the bell rang, and a polite invi- 
tation from the landlord placed me at the 
table. There is nothing so helpful to a 
disconsolate man as a good dinner. It dis- 
sipates melancholy and stimulates persis- 
tency. Neyer preach high moral rectitude 
or the possibilities of industry to a hungry 
man. First giye him something to eat^ 
then should there be a yulnerable spot to 
such admonition you \yill succeed. If not, 
lie is an incorrigible. 

After dinner I immediately went out, 
and after many attempts to seek employ- 
ment of an}^ kind, I approached a house in 
course of construction and applied to the 
contractor for work. He replied he did 
not need help. I asked the price of wages. 
Ten dollars a day. I said you would much 
oblige me by giying me, if only a few days' 
work, as I have just arriyed. After a few 
moments thought, during which mayhap 
charity and gain held conference, which 
succumbed, it is needless to j^remise, for 
we sometimes ascribe selfish motiyes to 
kindly acts, he said that if I choose to 
come for nine dollars a day I might. It is 
unnecessary for me to add that I chose to 

When I got outside the building an ap- 
palling thought presented itself; whoeyer 
heard of a carpenter announcing himself 
ready for \york without his tools. A minis- 
ter may be without piety, a lawyer without 



clients, a politician impolitic, but a car- 
penter without tools, never! It would be 
prima facia evidence of an imposter. I 
went back and asked Avliat tools I must 
bring upon the morroNv; he told me and I 
left. But the tools, the tools, how was I to 
get them. My only acquaintance in the 
city was my landlord. But prospects were 
too bright to reveal to him my secret. I 
wended my way to a large tent having an 
assortment of hardware and was shown 
the tools needed. I then told the merchant 
that I had no money, and of the place I 
had to work the next morning. He said 
nothing for a moment, looked me over, and 
then said: '\Wl right take them.'' I felt 
great relief when I paid the merchant and 
my landlord on the following Saturday. 

Why do I detail to such length these 
items of endeavor; experiences which hav^ 
had similarity in many lives? For the rea- 
son that they seem to contain data for a 
moral, which if observed may be useful. 
Never disclose your poverty until the last 
gleam of hope has sunk beneath the 
horizon of your best effort, remembering 
that invincible determination holds the 
key to success, while advice and assistance 
hitherto laggard, now with hasty steps 
greets you within the door. 

I was not allowed to long pursue car- 
pentering. White employees finding me at 
work on the same building would ^'strike.'' 
On one occasion the eontractor came to 
me and said, ^^I expect you will have to 


stop, for this house must be finished in the 
time specified; but, if you can get six or 
eight equally good workmen, I will let 
these fellows go. Not that I have any 
special liking for your people. I am giving 
these men all the wages they demand, and 
I am not willing to submit to the tj^rany of 
their dictation if I can help it. This episode, 
the moral of which is as pertinent today as 
then, and more apparent, intensifies the 
necessity of greater desire upon the part 
of our young men and women to acquire 
knowledge in skilled handicraft, reference 
to which I have hitherto made. But my 
convictions are so pronounced that I can- 
not forbear the reiteration. For while it is 
enobling to the individual, giving inde- 
pendence of character and more financial 
ability, tlie reflex influence is so helpful in 
giving the race a iiigher status in the in- 
dustrial activities of a commonwealth. 
Ignorance of such activities compel our 
people mostly to engage in the lower and 
less remunerative pursuits. I could not 
find the men he wanted or subsequent em^ 
ployment of that kind. 

All classes of labor were highly re- 
munerative, blacking boots not excepted. 

I after engaged in this, and other like 
humble employments, part of which was 
for Hon. John C. Fremont, ^^the path- 
finder overland to California.'' 

Saving my earnings, I joined a firm al- 
ready established in the clothing business. 
After a j^ear or more so engaged, I became 

•'The Sage of Tuskegee." 

The Leader of Leaders For Nogro Advancement. 



a partner in the firm of Lester & Gibbs, 
importers of fine boots and shoes. Just 
here a thought occurs which may be of ad- 
vantage to ambitious but impecunious 
young men. Do not hesitate when you are 
without choice to accept the most humble 
and menial employment. It will be a 
source of pleasure, if by self-denial, saving 
your earnings, you keep a fixed intent to 
nmke it the stepping stone to something 

The genius of our institutions, and the 
noblest of mankind will estimate you by 
the ratio of distance from the humblest 
beginning to your present attainment; the 
greater the distance the greater the luster; 
the more fitting the meed of praise. 

Our establishment on Clay street, 
knoAvn asthe^^Emporium for fine boots and 
shoes, imported from Philadelphia, Lon- 
don and Paris,'' having a reputation for 
keeping the best and finest in the State, 
was well patronized, our j^atrons extend- 
ing to Oregon and lower California. The 
business, wholesale and retail, w^as profit- 
able and maintained for a number of 
years. Mr. Lester, my partner, being a 
practical bootmaker, his step to a mer- 
chant in that line was easy and lucrative. 

Thanks to the evolution of events and 
march of liberal ideas the colored men in 
California have now a recognized citizen- 
ship, and equality before the law. It was 
not so at the period of which I write. With 



thrift and a wise circumspection flnancial- 
Ijj their opportunities were good; from 
every other point of view they were ostra- 
cised, assaulted without redress, dis- 
francliised and denied their oath in a court 
of justice. 

One occasion will be typical of , the condi- 
tion. One of two mutual friends (both our 
customers) came in looking over and ad- 
miring a display of newly arrived stock, 
tried on a pair of boots, was pleased with 
them, but said he did not think he needed 
them then; laj them aside and he would 
think about it. A short time after his 
friend came in, was shown the pair the 
former had admired; would he like such a 
pair? He tried on several and then asked 
to try on his friend's selection; they only 
suited, and he insisted on taking them; we 
objected, but he had them on, and said we 
need not have fear, he would clear us of 
blame, and walked out. Knowing they 
were close friends we were content. Pos- 
sibly, in a humorous mood, he went 
straight to his friend, for shortly they both 
came back, the first asking for his boots; 
he would receive no explanation (while the 
cause of the trouble stood mute), and with 
vile epithets, using a heavy cane, again 
and again assaulted my partner, who was 
compelled tamely to submit, for had he 
raised his hand he would have been shot, 
and no redress. I would not have been al- 
lowed to attest to ^^tlie deep damnation of 
his taking off.'' 



The Magna Charter, oTanfed by King 
John, at K unney Meoid^ ^ the Barons of 
England, nil LheTwelftn centur}^, followed 
by the Petition of Right by Charles I, has 
been rigidly preserved and consecrated as 
foundation for civil liberty. The Conti- 
nental Congress led the van for the United 
States, who oftinies tardy in its conserva- 
tism, is disposed to give andience to merit 
and flnallj^ justice to pertinacity of pur- 

In 1851, Jonas P. Townsend, W. H. New- 
by, and other colored men with myself, 
drew up and published in the ^^Alto Cali- 
fornia,'' the leading paper of the State, a 
preamble and resolutions protesting 
against being disfranchised and denied the 
right of oath, and our determination to 
use all moral means to secure legal claim 
to all the rights and privileges of Amer- 
ican citizens. 

It being the tirst pronouncement from 
the colored people of the State, who were 
supposed to be content with their status, 
the announcement caused much comment 
and discussion among the dominant class. 
For down deep in the heart of every man 
is a conception of right. He cannot ex- 
tinguish it, or separate it from its com- 
parative. What would I have others do to 
me? Pride, interest, adverse contact, all 
with specious argument may strive to dis- 
sipate the comparison, but the pulsations 
of a common humanity, keeping time with 
the verities of God never ceased to 



trouble, and thus the moral pebble thrown 
on the bosom of the hitherto placid sea of 
public opinion, like its physical prototype, 
creating undulations Avhich go on and on 
to beat against the rock and make sandy 
shoreS; so this our earnest but feeble pro- 
test contributed its humble share in the re- 
building of a commonwealth Avliere ^^a 
man's a man for all that.'^ 

The committee above named, with G. W. 
Denms and James Brown, the same 
year . formed a company, established 
and published the '^Mirror of the Times,'' 
the first periodical issued in the State for 
the advocacy of equal rights for all Ameri- 
cans. It has been followed by a score of 
kindred that have assiduously maintained 
and abh' contended for the rights and 
privileges claimed by their zealous leader. 

State conventions were held in 1854, 
'55 and '57, resolutions and petitions pass- 
ed and presented to the Legislature of 
Sacramento. We had friends to offer 
them and foes to move they be thrown out 
the window. It is ever thus, "that men go 
to fierce extremes rather than rest upon 
the quiet flow of truths that soften hatred 
and temper strife." There was that un- 
known quantity, present in all legislative 
bodies, composed of good "little men" 
without courage of conviction, others of 
the Dickens' "devilish sly" type, who put 
out their plant-like tendrils for support; 
others Who bent the pliant servile knee 
that thrift may follow fawniug"4— all 



these the make-weight of a necessary con- 
stituent in representative government con- 
servatism. The conservative majority laid 
our petition on the table, most likely with 
the tacit understanding that it was to be 
^^taken up'' by the janitor, and as such ac- 
tion on his part is not matter for record, 
we will in this happier day with ^^charity 
to all,'' over this episode on memory's leaf, 
sinipl}^ wrote "lo^t or stolen." 

Among tlie occasions continually occur- 
ring demanding protests against injustice 
was the imposition of the ^^poll tax." It 
was demanded of our firm, and we refused 
to pay. A sufficient quantitj^ of our goods 
to pay tax and costs were levied upon, and 
published for sale, and on what account. 

I wrote witli a fervor as cool as the cir- 
cumstances would permit, and published 
a card from a disfranchised oath-denied 
standpoint, closing with the avowal that 
the great State of California might an- 
nually confiscate our goods, but we would 
never pay the voters tax. The card at- 
tracte'd attention, the injustice seemed 
glaring, tlie goods were offered. We learn- 
ed that we had several friends at the sale, 
one in particular a Southern man. Now 
there was this peculiarity about the South- 
ern white man, he would work a Negro for 
fifty years for his victuals and clothes, and 
shoot a white man for cheating the same 
Negro, as he considered the latter the 
heii2:ht of meanness. This friend quietly 
and persistently moved through the 


crowd, telling them wliy our goods were 
there, and advising to give tliem a '^Un-vi- 
ble letting alone.'' The auctioneer stated 
on what account they were there, to be 
sold, asked for bidders, winked his eye and 
said "no bidders." Our goods were sent 
back to our store. This law, in the words 
of a distinguished Statesman, was then al- 
lowed to relapse "into innocuous desue- 
tude." No further attempts to enforce it 
upon colored men Avere made. 


oni in Xowheiry, C. — Ordained Bishop in 1880 — President of liisliop 
Home and Foreign Missiionary Society and Sumday School Union ol" tli* 
A. M. E. Church- — From Slave to Statesman — As Soldier, Editor. 
Author, Legislator, Orator, and African Eixplorer — For Vitality 
and Ability. Courage and Fidelity, Along so Many 
Lines. He Stands' Without a Peer. 




A rush to newly discovered gold fields 
bring in view every trait of liiiman charac- 
ter. The more vicious standing out in bold 
relief, and stamping their impress upon 
the locality. This phase and most primi- 
tive situation can be accounted for partly 
by the cupidity of mankind, but mainly 
that the first arrivals are chiefly adventur- 
ers. Single men, untrammeled by family 
cares, traders, saloonists, gamblers, and 
that unknow^n quantity of indefinite qual- 
ity, ever present, content to allow others 
to fix a status of society, provided they do 
not touch on their own special interests, 
and that other, the unscrupulous but active 
professional politician, having been dis- 
honored at home, still astute and deter- 
mined, seeks new fields for booty, obtain 
positions of trust and then consummate 
peculation and outrage under the forms of 
law. But the necessity for the honest ad- 
ministration of the law eventually asserts 
itself for the enforcement of order. 

It was quaintly said by a governor of 
Arkansas, that he believed that a public 
official should be ^treasonably honest.'^ 
Even should that limited standard of offi- 
cial integrity be invaded the people with 



an honest ballot need not be long in recti- 
fying tlie evil by legal means. But cannot 
something be said in palliation of sum- 
mary punishment by illegal means, Avhen 
it is notorious and indisputable that all 
machinery for the execution of the law 
and the maintenance of order, the judges, 
pl'osecuting attorneys, slieriff and drawers 
of jurors, and every other of court of law 
are in the hands of a despotic cabal who 
excessively tax, and whose courts convict 
all those who oppose them, and exonerate 
by trial the most farcical, the vilest crimi- 
nal, rob and murder in broad day light, 
often at the bidding of their protectors. 
Such a status for a people claiming to be 
civilized seems difticult to conceive, yet the 
above was not an liy])othesis of condition, 
but the actual one tliat existed in Cali- 
fornia and San Francisco, especially from 
1849 to 1855. Gamblers and dishonest 
politicians from other States held the gov- 
ernment, and there was no legal redress. 
Every attempt of the friends of law and 
order to elect honest men to office was met 
at the polls by vituperation and assault. 

One of the means for thinning out the 
ranks of their opi)onents at the polLs they 
found very efficient. It was to scatter 
their ^"thugs" along the line of waiting 
voters and known opposers, and quickly 
and covertly inject the metal part of a 
shoemaker's aAvl in the rear but most 
fleshy part of his adversary's anatomy, 
making sitting unpleasant for a time. 



There was usually uncertaintj^ as to the 
point of compass from which the hint 
came to leave, but none as to the fact of 
its arrival. Hence the reformer did not 
stand on the order of his going, but gen- 
erally left the line. These votes, of course, 
were not thrown out, for the reason they 
never got in. It diminished, but did not 
abolish tlie necessity of stuffing ballot 
boxes. In the West I once knew an old 
magistrate named Scott, noted for his im- 
partiality, but only called Judge Scott by 
non-patrons of his court, who had never 
came within the purview of his adminis- 
tration, to others he Avas knoAvn as ^^old 
Necessitj^,^' for it was said he knew no 
law. Ilevolutions, the beneficial results of 
which will ever live in the history of man- 
kind, founded as they were on the rights 
of human nature and desire for the estab- 
lishment and conservation of just govern- 
ment, have ever been the outgrowth of 

Patient in protest of misj^overnment, 
men are prone to ^^bear the illUhey liave'^ 
until, like the accumulation of rills on 
mountain side, indignation leaps the 
bounds of legal form and prostrate law to 
find their essence and purpose in recon- 
struction. At the time of which I write, 
there seemed nothing left for the friends of 
law, bereft as they were of all statutary 
means for its enforcement, but making a 
virtue of this necessit}^ by organizing a 


<^vigilance committee'' to wrench by phy- 
sical strength that unobtainable by moral 
right. There had been no flourish of 
trumpets, no herald of the impending- 
storm, but tlie pent up forces of reyolution 
in inertion, now fierce for action, discarded 
restraint. Stern, but quiet had been the 
preparation for a reyolution which had 
come, as come it CA^er will, with such inyit- 
ing enyironnients. It was not that normal 
status, the usual frailties of human nature 
described by Hooker as ^^stains and blem- 
ishes that will remain till the end of the 
world, what form of goyernment, soeyer, 
may take place, they grow out of man's 
nature.'' But in this eyent the stains and 
blemishes were effaced by a common 
atrocit}. . 

Sitting at tlie back of my store onChfx 
street a beautiful Sunday morning,-<5ne of 
those mornings peculiar to San Francisco, 
with its balmy breezes and Italian skies, 
there seemed an unusual stillness, such a 
quiet as precedes the cyclone in tropical 
climes, only broken occasionally by silyery 
peals of the church bells. When suddenly 
I heard the plank street resound with the 
tramp of a multitude. No yoice or other 
sound Ayas heard but the tramp of soldiery, 
Ayhose rhymth of sound and motion is eA'er 
a proclamation that thrills by its intensity, 
Ayhether conquest or conserA^ation be its 
mission. I hastened to the door and Ayas 
appalled at the sight. In marching 



columii, six or eight abreast, five thousand 
men carrying arms with head erect, a reso- 
lute determination born of conviction de- 
picted in linament of feature and expres- 

Hastily improvised barracks in large 
storehouses east of Montgomery street, 
fortified by hundreds of gunny sacks filled 
with sand, designated "Fort Gunney," was 
the quarters for committee and soldiers. 
The committee immediately dispatched 
deputies to arrest and bring to the Fort 
the leaders of this cabal of misgovern- 
ment. The effort to do so gave striking 
evidence of the cowardice of assassins. 
Men whose very name had inspired terror, 
and whose appearance in the corridors of 
hotels or baiTooms hushed into silence the 
free or merry expression of their patrons, 
now fled and hid away "like damned 
ghosts at the smell of day'^ from the popu- 
lar uprising of the people. The event which 
precipitated the movement — the last and 
crowning act of this oligarchy — was the 
shooting of James King, of William, a 
banker and .publisher of a paper dedicated 
to the exposure and denunciation of this 
ring of dishonest officials and assassins. It 
was done in broad daylight on Montgom- • , 
ery Street, the main thoroughfare of the (i^^/^jcJ^ 
city. Mr. King, of WilUamj[Oounty, Mary- ^ 
land, was a terse '"'wrllEerf^ar'^^ ^^^fv^vw- ^ 

highly esteemed for integrity and devotion 
to the best interests of his adopted State. 



Manj' of the gang who had time and op- 
portunity hid on steamers and sailing ves- 
sels to facilitate escape, but quite a num- ^ 
ber were arrested and taken to Fort Gunny |^ 
for trial. One or two of the most promi- 
nent took refuge in the jail — a strong and 
well-appointed brick building — Avhere, un- 
der the protection of their own hirelings 
in fancied security considered themselves 
safe. A deputation of the committee fi om 
the fort placed a cannon at proper distance 
from the entrance to the jail. With a 
watch in his hand, the captain of the squad 
gave the keepers ten minutes to open the 
doors and deliver the culpiuts. I well re- 
member the excitement that increased in 
intensity as the allotted period diminished; 
the fuse lighted, and two minutes to spare; 
the door opened; the delivery was made, 
and the march to Fort Gunny began. A 
trial court had been organized at which 
the testimony was taken, verdict rendered, 
and judgment passed. From a beam pro- 
jecting over an upper story window, used 
for hoisting merchandise, tlie convicted 
criminals were executed. 

The means resorted to for the puri- 
fication of the municipality were dras- 
tic, but the ensuing feeling of per- 
sonal safety and confidence in a new 
administration appeared to be ample justi- 
fication. Much has been said and written 
in defense and in condemnation of revolu- 
tionary methods for the reformation of gov- 
ernment. It cannot but be apparent that 



when it is impossible to execute the vir- 
tuous purposes of goyernmeut, the ma- 
chiuery liaving passed to notorious vio- 
lators, who use it solely for vicious pur- 
pose, there seems nothing left for the vo- 
taries of order than to seize the reins with 
strong right arm and restore a status of 
justice that should be the pride and glory 
of all civilized people. 

But what a paradox is presented 
in the disregard for law and life 
today in our common country, includ- 
ing much in our Southland! It is a sad 
commentary on the weakness and incon- 
sistences of liuman nature and often starts 
the inquiry in many honest minds, as a re- 
medial agency, is a republican form of 
government the most conducive in secur- 
ing the blessings of. liberty of which pro- 
tection to liuman life is the chief? 

For the actual reverse of conditions that 
existed in California in those early days 
are present in others of our States today. 
All the machinery and abilit^^ for the just 
administration of the law are in the hands 
of those appointed mainly by the ballot of 
the intelligence and virtue of these States^ 
who, if not participants, are quite as cen- 
surable for their "masterly inactivity'' in 
having allowed thousands of the most de- 
fenceless to be lynched by hanging or burn- 
ing at the stake. That there have been 
cases of assault on women by Negroes for 
wliich they have been lynched, it is need- 
less to deny. That they have been lynched 
for threatening to do bodily harm to white 



men for actual assaults on the Negro wife 
and daughter is equally true. The first 
should be denounced and arrested (escape 
being impossible) and by forms of law suf- 
fer its extreme penalty. The other for the 
cause they were murdered should have the 
highest admiration and the most sincere 
plaudits from every honest man. Is it true 
that "he is a slave most base whose love 
of right is for himself and not for all the 
race/^ and that the measure you mete out 
to others — the same shall be your portion. 
All human history verifies these aphor- 
isms; and that the perpetrators and silent 
abettors of this barbarism have sowed to 
the winds a dire penalty, already being 
reaped, is evidenced by disregard of race 
or color of the victim when mob law is in 
the ascendant. And further, as a salvo for 
their own acts, white men are allowing bad 
Negroes to lynch others of their kind with- 
out enforcing the law. 

The Negro^, apish in his affinity to his 
prototype in a "lynching bee,'' is beneath 


]5oi'n at Kos4'dalt>, North (\*iroHna — (Ti-aduato from Howard rnivcrsiiy in IS77— 
Practiwd lA\^\ in all tho Courts of his State— M»'mb('r of Housh^ of Ri^prc- 
seutativ*^ in, 1880 and of Seiitato in 1884 — Ei^ht Yi^irs l*ros»M-utini: 
Attorney — Elerted Member of the Fifty-fifth (V)ngrff!s as a 
ItepnhlicaQ. With a Record rnimpeacliahh'. 




Early in the year 1858 gold was discov- 
ered on Eraser Eiver, in the Hudson Bay 
Company's territory in the Northwest. 
This territory a few months later was or- 
ganized as the Colony of British Columbia 
and absorbed; is now the western outlook 
of the Dominion of Canada. The discovery 
caused an immense rush of gold seekers, 
traders, and speculators from all parts of 
the world. In June of that year, with a 
large invoice of miners' outfits, consisting 
of flour, bacon, blankets, pick, shovels, etc., 
I took passage on steamship Republic for 
Victoria. The social atmosphere on steam- 
ers whose patrons are chiefly gold seekers 
is unlike that on its fellow, where many 
have jollity moderated by business cares, 
others reserved in lofty consciousness that 
they are on foreign pleasure bent. With 
the gold seeker, especially the ^^tender- 
foot,'' there is an incessant social hilarity, 
a communion of feeling, an ardent antici- 
pation that cannot be dormant, continually 
bubbling over. We had on board upward of 
seven hundred, comprising a variety of 
tongues and nations. The bustle and tur- 
moil incident to getting off and being prep- 
erly domiciled; the confusion of tongues 


and i)eciiliarity of temperament resembled 
the Babel of old. Here the mercurial Son 
of France in search of a case of red wine, 
hot and inij)ulsiye, belching forth ^Ssacres'- 
with a A'elocity well sustained. The phleg- 
matic German stirred to excitability in 
quest of a ^^small cask of lager and large 
box of cheese;-^ John Chinaman ^^Hi yahM" 
for one ^^bag lice all saniee hab one Meli- 
can man/' while a chivalric but seedj^-look- 
ing Southerner, who seemed to have ^^seen 
better days/' wished he ^^might be — if he 
didn't lay a pe-j^or of boots thar whar that 
blanket whar.'' Not to be lost in the shuf- 
fle was a tall canting specimen of Yankee- 
dom perched on a water cask that ^^reck- 
oned tlier is right smart chance of folks on 
this 'ere ship," and ^^kalkerlate that that 
boat swinging thar war a good place to 
stow my iixin's in." The next day thor- 
ough system and efliciency was brought 
out of chaos and good humor prevaikMl. 

Victoria, then the capital of British Co- 
lumbia, is situated on the southern point 
of Vancouver's Island. On account of the 
salubrity of its climate and jn'oximity to 
the spacious land-locked harbor of Esqui- 
mault it is delightful as a place of resi- 
dence and well adapted to great mercan- 
tile and industrial ]30ssibilities. It was the 
headquarters of the Hudson Bay Company, 
a very old, wealthy, and influential Eng- 
lish trading company. Outside the com- 
pany's fort, enclosing immense store- 
houses, there were but few houses. The 



nucleus of a town in the shape of a few 
Diocks laid out, and ehietly on ijaper maps, 
was most that gave j)romise of the pop^u- 
lous city of Victoria of the present. On 
my arriyal my goods were sold at great ad- 
yauce on cost, an order for more sent by 
returning steamer. I had learned prior to 
starting that city lots could be bought for 
one hundred dollars each, and had come 
prepared to buy two or three at that price. 
A few days before my arriyal what the au- 
thorities had designated as the ^4and of- 
fice'' had been subjected to a ''Yankee 
rush,'- which had not only taken, and paid 
for all the lots mapped out, but came near 
appropriating books, benches, and window 
sashes; hence the office had to close down 
and haul off for repairs, and suryeyed lots, 
and would not be open for business for ten 
days. Meanwhile those that were in at the 
first sale were still in, haying real estate 
matters their own way. Steamers and sail- 
ing craft were constantly arriying, dis- 
charging their human fi-eight, that needed 
food, houses, and outfits for the mines, giy- 
ing an impetus to property of all kinds that 
was amazing for its rapidity. The next 
afternoon after the day of my arriyal I 
had signed an agreement and paid one 
hundred dollars on account for a lot and 
one-story house for §3,000 — §1,400 more in 
fifteen days, and the balance in six months. 
Upon the arriyal of my goods ten days later 
I paid the second installment and took pos- 
session. Well, how came I to take a re- 
sponsibility so far beyond my first intended 



investment? Just here I rise to remark: 
For effective purposes one must not be un- 
duly sensitive or overmodest in writing au- 
tobiograpli}^ — for, being tlie events and 
memoirs of his life, Avritten by himself^ 
the ever-present pronoun ''V^ dances in 
such lively attendance and in such profu- 
sion on the pages that whatever pride lie 
may have in the events they chronicle is 
somewhat abashed at its repetition. 

Addison truly says: ^^There is no pas 
sion which steals into the heart more im- 
perceptible and covers itself under more 
disguises than pride.'' Still, if in such mem- 
oirs there be found landmarks of precept 
or example that will smooth the rugged- 
ness of Youth's pathway, the success of its 
mission should disarm invidious criticism. 
For the great merit of history or biography 
is not alone the events they chronicle, but 
the value of the thought they inspire. Pre- 
vious to purchasing the property I had cal- 
culated the costs of alteration and esti- 
mated the imcome. In twenty days, after 
an expenditure of |200 for improvements, 
I found myself receiving a rental of f500 
per month from the property, besides a 
store for the firm. Anyone without me- 
chanical knowledge with time and oppor- 
tunity to seek information from others 
may have done the same, but in this case 
there was neither time nor opportunity; 
it required quick perception and prompt 
action. The trade my mother insisted 1 
should learn enabled me to do this. Get 



a trade, boys, if you have to live on bread 
and apples while attaining it. It is a good 
foundation to build higher. Don't crowd 
the waiters. If they are content, give 
them a chance. We received a warm wel- 
come from the Governor and other of- 
ficials of the colony, which was cheering. 
We had no complaint as to business pat- 
ronage in the State of California, but there 
was ever present that spectre of oath de- 
nial and disfranchisement; the disheart- 
ening consciousness that Avhile our exist- 
ence was tolerated, we were powerless to 
appeal to law for the protection of life or 
property when assailed. British Columbia 
offered and gave protection to both, and 
equality of political privileges. I cannot 
describe Avith what joy we hailed the op- 
portunity to enjoy that liberty under the 
^'British lion'' denied us beneath the pin- 
ions of the American Eagle. Three or four 
hundred colored men from California and 
other States, with their families, settled in 
Victoria, drawn thither by the two-fold in- 
ducement — gold discovery and the assur- 
ance of enjoying impartially the benefits 
of constitutional libert3^ Thej^ built or 
bought homes and other property, and by 
industry and character vastly improved 
their condition and were the recipients of 
respect and esteem from the community. 

An important step in a man's life is his 
marriage. It being the merging of dual 
lives, it is only by mutual self-abnegation 


that it can be made a source of content- 
ment and happiness. In 1859, in consum- 
mation of promise and purpose, I returned 
to the United States and was married to 
Mi s Maria A. Alexander, of Kentucky, 
educated at Oberlin College, Ohio. After 
visits to friends in Buffalo and my friend 
Frederick Douglass at Eochester, N. Y., 
thence to Philadelphia and Ncay York 
Oit}^, where we took steamship for our long 
journej' of 4,000 miles to our intended 
home at Victoria, Vancouver Island. 1 
have had a model Avife in all that the term 
implies, and she has had a husband mi- 
gratory and uncertain. AVe have been 
blessed with five cliildren, four of whom 
are living — Donald F., Horace E., Ida A., 
and Hattie A. Gibbs; Donald a machinist, 
Horace a printer by trade. Ida graduated 
as an A. B. from Oberlin College and is 
now teacher of English in the High School 
at Washington, D. C; Hattie a graduate 
from the Conservatory of Music at Oberlin, 
Ohio, and was professor of music at the 
Eckstein-Norton University at Cave 
Springs, Ky., and now musical director of 
public schools of Washington, D. C. 

In passing through the States in 1859 an 
unrest was everywhere observable. The 
pulsebeatof the great national heart quick- 
ened at impending danger. The Supreme 
Court had made public the Dred Scott de- 
cision; John Brown had organized an in- 
surrection; Stephen A. Douglass and 



Abraliam Lincoln at the time were in ex- 
citing debate; William H. SeAvard Avas pro- 
claiming the ^^irrepressible conflict.'' With 
other signs portentons, cnlniinating in se- 
cession and events re-enacting history — 
for that the canses and events of which 
histor}' is the record are being continu- 
on^lj re-enafcted from a moral standpoint 
is of easA^ observation. History, as the nar- 
ration of the actions of men, with attend- 
ant results, is but a repetition. Different 
minds and other hands may be the instru- 
ments, but the effects from any given 
course involving fundamental principles 
are the same. This was taught by philoso- 
phers 2,000 years ago, some insisting that 
not only was this repetition observable in 
the moral world, but that the physical 
world was repeated in detail— that ever-y 
person, every blade of grass, all nature, 
animate and inanimate, reappeared upon 
the earth, engaged in the same pursuits, 
and fulfilling the same ends formerly ac- 

However skeptical we may be as to 
this theory of the ancients, the stu- 
dent of modern history has accom- 
plished little if he fails to be impressed 
with the important truth standing out on 
every page in letters of living light — that 
this great world of ours is governed by a 
system of moral and physical laws that are 
as unerring in the bestowal of rewards as 
certain in the infliction of penalties. Tlie 
liistory of our own country is one that 



will ever be an exemplification of this pre- 
eminent truth. The protests of the vic- 
tims of oppression in the old world re- 
sulted in a moral upheaval and the estab- 
lishment b}^ force of arms of a Kepublic in 
America. The Revolutionary Congress, of 
which, in adopting the Federal Constitu- 
tion, closed Avith this solemn injunction: 
^^Let it be remembered that it has been tln^ 
pride and boast of America that the rights 
for which she contended were the rights of 
human nature." And it was reserved for 
the founders of this nation to establish in 
the words of an illustrious benefactor, ^^a 
^Government of the peoi)le, for the people, 
and by the people" — a Government deriv- 
ing all its i)owers from the consent of tlie 
governed, where freedom of opinion, 
whether relating to Church or State, was 
to have the widest scope and fuUest ex- 
pression consistent with private rights 
and public good — where the largest indi- 
viduality could be developed and the patri- 
cian and plebeian meet on a common level 
and aspire to the highest honor Avithin the 
gift of the people. 

This was its chara^-ter, this its mis- 
sion. How it has sustained the char- 
acter, liow fulfilled the mission upon 
which it entered, the impartial historian 
has indited, every page of which is redo- 
lent with precept and example that point 
a moral. 

With the inauguration of republican 
government in America the angel of 

SHADOW AND l^lGldL/ 67 

freedom and the demon of^avery wrestj^ 
for the mastery. TallWand has b^uti- 
fnlly and forcibly said: ''The and 
Thistle may grow together in harmonious 
proximity, but liberty and slavery delight 
in the separation.'^ The pronounced pol- 
icy of the best minds at the adoption of 
the Federal Constitution was to repress it 
as an institution inhuman in its character 
and fraught with mischief. Foretelling 
with accuracy of divine inspiration, Jeffer- 
son "trembled for his countrj ' ' when he re- 
membered that God was just and that 
''His justice would not sleep forever.'- Pat- 
rick Henry said "that a serious view of 
this subject gives a gloomy prospe>ct to fu- 
ture times.'' So Mason and other patriots 
wrote and felt, fully impressed that the 
high, solid ground of right and justice had 
l^een left for the bogs and mire of expedi- 

They died, leaving this heritage grow- 
ing stronger and bolder in its assump- 
tion of power and permeating every ar- 
tery of society. The cotton gin was in- 
vented and the demand for cotton vaulted 
into the van of the commerce of the coun- 
try. Men, lured by the gains of slavery 
find corrupted by its contact, sought by in- 
famous reasoning and vicious legislation 
to avert the criticism of men and the judg- 
ment of God. In the words of our immor- 
tal Douglass, "To bolster up and make tol- 
erable what was intolerable; to make hu- 
man what was inhuman; to make divine 



what was infernal.'^ To make this giant 
wrong acceptable to the moral sense it was 
averred and enacted that slavery was 
right; that God himself had so predeter- 
mined in His wisdom; that the slave could 
be branded and sold on the auction blo<?k; 
that the babe could be ruthlessly taken 
from its mother and given away; that a 
family could be scattered hj sale, to meet 
no more; that to teach a slave to read was 
punishable with death to the teacher. But 
why rehearse this dead past — this terrible 
night of suffering and gloom? Whj' not 
let its remembrance be effaced and forgot- 
ten in the glorious light of a happier day? 
I answer, Why? 

All measure of value, all estimates of 
greatness, of joy or ^rrow, of health or 
suffering, are relative; we judge by .com- 
parison, and if in recalling these former 
depths we temper unreasonable criticism 
of waning friendships, accelerate effort as 
we pass the mile-stones of achievement^ 
and stimulate appreciation of liberty in 
the younger generation, the mention will 
not be fruitless. 

But to the resume of this rapid state- 
ment of momentous events: Meanwhile^ 
the slave, patient in his longings, prayed 
for deliverance. Truly has it been said by 
Elihu Burrit that '^ron may take a man 
and yoke him to your labor as you yoke 
the ox that worketh to live, and liveth to 
work; you may surround him with ignor- 
ance and cloud him over with artificial 



night. You may do this and all else that 
will degrade him as a man, Avithout injur- 
ing his value as a slave; yet the idea that 
he was born to be free will survive it all. 
'Tis allied to his hope of immortality — the 
ethereal part of his nature which oppres- 
sion cannot reach. ^Tis the torch lit up in 
his soul by the omnipotent hand of Deity 
Himself.^- The true and tried hosts of free- 
dom, represented and led by Garrison, 
Douglass, Lovejoy, Phillips, Garnet, Har- 
riet' Beecher Stowe, and Frances Ellen 
Harper, and others — few compared to the 
indifferent and avowed defenders of slav- 
ery, welcoming outrage and ostracism, by 
pen and ou forum, from hilltop and valley, 
proclaimed emancipation as the right of 
the slave and the duty of the master. The 
many heroic efforts of the anti-slavery pha- 
lanx were not without effect, and deter- 
mined resistance was made to the admis- 
sion of more sla\'e territoryj^iMt^li was in 
accordance with the "B^mrl^^ prohibiting 
slavery in the Northwest. Slavery con- 
trolled the Government from its com- 
mencement, hence its supporters looked 
with alarui upon an increasing determina- 
tion to stay its progress. 

California had been admitted as a free 
State, after a struggle the most severe. Its 
admission John C. Calhoun, the very able 
leader of the slave power, regarded as the 
death-knell of slavery, if the institution :^e- 
mained within the union aiid counseled se- 
cOvVsiDn.. -Washington,. Jefferson, and Mad- 



ison, iu despair at the groAvtli of slavery; 
Calhoun at that of freedom. But how 
could this march of moral progress and na- 
tional greatness be arrested? Congress 
had, in 1787, enacted that all rthe territory 
not then States should forever be reserved 
to freedom. The slave poAver saw the 
^"handwriting on the wall'' surround it 
Avith a cordon of free States; increase 
their representatives in Congress advocat- 
ing freedom, and slavery is doomed. The 
line cherished hj the founders, the Gi- 
braltar against which slavery had dashed 
its angry billows, must be blotted out, and 
over every rod of virgin soil it was to be 
admitted Avithout let or hindrance. 

Then came the dark days of compromise, 
the era of Northern fear of secession, and, 
finally, opinion crystallizing into legisla- 
tion non-committal, viz: That States ap- 
plying for admission should be admitted 
as free or slave States, as a majority of 
their inhabitants might determine. Then 
came the struggle for Kxtnsas. Emigration 
societies were fitted out lit the Xew Eng- 
land and Northern States to send free 
State men to locate Avho would vote to 
bring in Kansas as a free State. Similar 
organizations existed in the slave States 
for the opposite purpose. 

It is not pleasant to dAvell nor fitly por- 
tray the terrible ordeal through which the 
friends of freedom passed. In 1859 they 
succeeded; right and justice Avere trium- 
phant, the beneficial results of which will 


Boi'u in Louisa Country, Vn. — I^]ducntod nt Olxu'liu. Ohio — M<Miib('i' B<jjn'd of 
Health, District of C-olumhia in 1.S71 — Mniistc r Kosideut and Consul- 
General to Port-au-Princ(\ Hayti, 1877 — Elected to Con^ri«s 

from Fourth Congressional IJistriet of Virginia in 
. -■^ ^H¥.\ — Author of "Fr«^odoni and Ciiizen.shii)" 
' / Y iintd "From the Virginia Plant it ion 

to the National Capitol." 



reach remotest time. It was in this con- 
flict that the heroism of John Brown de- 
veloped. It was there he saw his kindred 
and liis friends murdered, and there reg- 
istered his vow to avenge their blood in 
the disenthralment of the slave. The com- 
peers of this ^^grand old man'' or people of 
the nation could have scarcely supposed 
that this man, hitherto obscure, was to be 
the instrument of retributive justice, to in- 
augurate a rebellion which Avas to culmi- 
nate in the freedom of 4,000,000- slaves. 
John Brown, at the head of a few devoted 
men, at Harper's Ferry, struck the blow 
that echoed and re-echoed in booming gun 
and flashing i-abre until, dj-ing away in 
whispered cadence, Avas hushed in the joy- 
ousness of a free nation. John Brown Avas 
great because he Avas good, and good be- 
cause he Avas great, AA^th the bravery of a 
warrior and the tenderness of a child, lov- 
ing liberty as a mother' her first born, he 
scorned to compromise Avith slavery. Vir- 
ginia demanded his blood and he gave it, 
making the spot on which he fell sacred 
for all time, upon which posterity will see 
a monument in commemoration of an ef 
fort, grand in its magnanimity, to Avhich 
the devotees of liberty from every clime 
can repair to t/eathe anew an inspiration 
from its shrine — 

''For Avhether on the galloAvs high 
Or in the battle's van, 
The noblest place for man to die 
Is where he dies for man.'' 


The slave power, defeated iu Kansas, 
fearful of The result of the vote in other 
territories to determine their future status, 
found aid and comfort fi*om Judge Taney, 
a Supreme Judge of the United States. 
Bancroft, the historian, has said: **In a 
great Republic an attempt to overthrow a 
State owes its strength to and from some 
branch of the Government." Tis said that 
this Chief Justice, Avithout necessity or oc- 
casion, volunteered to come to the rescue 
of slavery, and, being the highest court 
known to the law, the edict was linal, and 
no api)eal could lie, save to the bar of hu- 
manity and history. Against tin* memory 
of the nation, against decisions and enact- 
ments, he announced that, slaves being 
property, owners could claim constitu- 
tional protection in the territories; that 
the Constitution ui)held slavery against 
any act of a State Legislature, and even 
against Congress. Slavery, previous tn 
1850, was regulated by municipal law; the 
slave Avas held by virtue of the laAvs of the 
State of his location or of kindred ^slave 
States. When he escaped that jurisdiction 
he was free. By the decision of Judge 
Taney, instead of slavery being local, it 
Avas national and freedom outlaAved; the 
slave could not only be reclaimed in any 
State, but slavery could be established 
wherever it sought habitation. 

Black laws had been passed in Northern 
States and United States Commissioners 
api>ointed in these States searched for 



fngitives, where they had, in fancied secur- 
ity, resided for years, built homes, and 
reared families, seizing and remanding 
them back into slaA^ery, causing an era of 
terror, family dismemberment, and flight, 
only to be remembered with sadness and 
horror. For had not the heartless dictum 
<ome from a Chief Justice of the United 
States — the ^^Jeffr ^f America n jjirispru- 
dence,'" that iTl^ad been ruledT that black 
men had no rights a white man Avas bound 
to respect? 

The slave power, fortified with this dec- 
laration, resolved that if at the approach- 
ing election they did not succeed they 
would secede, Lincoln was elected, and the 
South, true to its resolve, prepared for the 
secession of its States. Pennsylvania is 
credited with having then made the last 
and meanest gift to the Presidency in the 
person of James Buchanan. History tells 
of a Nero who fiddled while Rome burned. 
The valedictory of this public functionary 
breathing aid and comfort to secession, 
was immediately followed by South Caro- 
lina firing on Fort Sumter, and Southern 
Senators advised their constituents to 
seize the arsenals and ports of the nation. 
l\ebellion Avas a fact. 





Abraham Lincoln, the President-elect, 
was the legitimate outgrowth of American 
institutions; in him was presented choice 
fruit, the product of republican govern- 
ment. Born in a log cabin, of poor, unedu- 
cated parents, his only aids untiring in- 
dustry, determination, and lofty purpose. 
Hewing out his steps on the rugged rocks 
of poverty, climbing the mountains of dif- 
ficulty, and attaining the highest honor 
within the gift of the nation — '^truly a self- 
made man, the Declaration of Independ- 
ence,'^ says a writer, ^^being his daily com- 
pendium of Avisdom, the life of Washing- 
ton his daily stud}', with something of Jef- 
ferson, Madison, and Clay.'' For the rest, 
from day to day, he lived the life of the 
American people; walked in its light; rea- 
soned with its reason; thought with its 
powers of thought, and felt the beatings of 
its mighty heart." In 1858 he came promi- 
nently forward as the rival of Stephen 
A. Douglass, and, with wealth of argu- 
ment, terseness of logic, and enunciation 
of just principles, took front rank among 
sturdy Republicans, battling against the 
extension of human slaverj^, declaring that 

The Emancipator. 

The Embodiment of Patriotism and Justice. "I hope peace will come to stay, and th( 
there will be some colored men who can remember that they helped mankind 
to this great consummation." 



"the nation could not endure half free and 
half slave.'' 

On the 4th of March, 1861, he took the 
oath of office and conimenced his Admin- 
istration. With confidente and doubt al- 
ternating, our interest as a race became 
intensified. We knew the South had re- 
belled; we were familiar with the pagan 
proverb "Those whom the gods Avould de- 
stroy they first made mad.'' We had 
watched the steady growth of Republican- 
ism, when a tinge on the political horizon 
"no bigger than a man's hand/' increase in 
magnitude and power and place its stand- 
ard-bearer in the White House. But for- 
mer Presidents had professed to hate slav- 
ery. President Fillmore had, yet signed 
the fugitive slave law; Pierce and Bu- 
chanan had both wielded the administra- 
tive arm in favor of slavery. We had seen 
Daniel Webster, Massachusetts' ablest 
jurist, and the most learned constitutional 
exf)ounder — the man of whom it was said 
that "when he speaks God's own thunder 
can be seen pent up in his brow and God's 
own lightning flash from his eye" — a man 
sent by the best cultured of New England 
to represent the most advanced civiliza- 
tion of the century — we had seen this bril- 
liant star of anti-slavery Massachusetts 
"pale ^ his ineffectual fires" before the 
steady glare, the intolerance, blandish- 
ment, and corrupting influences of the 
slave power — and tell the nation they 
mu{?t compromise with slavery. 



When Daniel O'Oonnell, Ireland's states- 
man and philanthropist J was approached 
in Parliament by West India planters with 
promises of support for measures for the 
relief of Ireland if he would vote in the 
interest of slavery in British colonies, he 
said: " 'Tis true, gentlemen, that I repre- 
sent a poor constituency — God only knows 
how poor; but may calamitj' and afflic- 
tion overtake me if ever I, to help Ireland, 
vote to enslave the Negro/' A noble ut- 
terance! Unlike the Northerii rej^resenta- 
tives sent to Congress, who ybent the pli- 
ant, servile knee that thrift might follow 
fawning.r What wonder our race was 
keenly alive to the situation? The hour 
had arrived — was the man there? 

For Abraham Lincoln impartial history 
will answer "Nor memory lose, nor time im- 
pair'' his nobility of character for human- 
ity and patriotism that will ever ennoble 
and inspire. Mr. Lincoln was slow to be- 
lieve that the rebellion would assume the 
proportions that it did, but he placed him- 
self squarely on the issue in his inaugural 
address: "That he sliould, to the extent of 
his ability, take care that the laws of the 
nation be faithfully executed in all the 
States; that in doing it there would be no 
bloodshed unless it was forced upon the 
national authority.'' His patriotism and 
goodness welling as lu^ said: "We are 
njf)t enemies, but friends, though Ave may 
vliave ^trained,. it niust not break our bonds 
of affiM-tion. The mystic chords of, memory. 



stretching from every battlefield and 
hearthstone, Avill y^t swell the chorus of 
the T^nion when again touched b}' the bet- 
ter angels of our nature/' 

^^But the die was cast; 
Ruthless rapine righteous hope defied/' 

The necessity for calling the nation to 
arms was imminent on the 15th of April^ 
1861; the call for 75,000 men rang like a 
trumpet blast, startling the most apa- 
thetic. The response from the Northern 
and portions of the Southern States was 
heart}^ and ijronipt. The battle at Bull 
Run dispelled the President's idea that the 
warwas to be of short duration. Defeat fol- 
lowed defeat of the national forces; weep- 
ing and wailing went up from many fire- 
sides for husbands and sons who had laid 
down on Southern battlefields to rest. The 
great North, looking up for succor, saw the 
^^national banner drooping from thej^g- 
staff, heavy with blood," and typipafM the 
stripes of the slave. For ^OjVfears the in- 
cense of his prayers and tears had 
ascended. Now from every booming gun 
there seemed the voice of God, ^'Let my 
people go" — 

"They see Him in watch fires 
Of a hundred circling cami)s; 
They read His righteous sentence 
By the dim and flaring lamps." 

The nation had come slowly but firmly 
up to the duty and necessity of emancipa- 



tion. Mr. Lincoln, who was now in accord 
with Garrison, Phillips, Douglass, and 
their adherents, had counseled them to 
continue urging the people to this demand, 
now pressing as a miltary necessit} . The 
1st of January, 1863, being the maturity 
of the proclamation, lifted 4,000,000 of hu- 
man beings from chattels to freemen, a 
grateful, praying people. Throughout the 
North and wherever possible in the South 
the colored people, on the night of Decem- 
ber 31, assembled in their churches for 
thanksgiving. On their knees in silence- — a 
silence intense with suppressed emotion — 
they awaited the stroke of the clock. It 
came, the thrice-welcomed harbinger of 
freedom, and as it tolled on, and on, the 
knell of slavery, pent-up joy could no 
longer be restrained. "Praise God, from 
whom all blessings flow,'' from a million 
voices, floated upward on midnight air. 
While some shouted "Hallelujah," others, 
with folded arms, stood mute and fixed as 
statuary, while "Tears of joy like summer 
raindrops pierced by sunbeams'' fell. 

When Robespierue and Danton disen- 
thralled France, we learn that the guillo- 
tine bathed in blood was the emblem of 
their transition state, from serfs to free- 
men. With the Negro were the antithesis 
of anger, revenge, or despair, that of joy, 
gratitude, and hope, has been memory's 
most choice trio. 

This master stroke of policy and jus- 
tice came with telling effect upon the 



consciousness of the people. It was 
now in deed and in truth a war for the 
Union coeval with freedom; every patriot 
heart beat a responsive echo, and was 
stirred by a new inspiration to deeds of 
heroism. Now success followed success; 
Port Hudson, Yicksburg, Chattanooga, 
Gettysburg, and the Mississippi bowed in 
submission to the national power. The 
record of history affirms subsequent events 
that during the ensuing twelve months 
war measures more gigantic than had been 
witnessed in modern times were inaug- 
urated; hoAV the will of the people to 
subdue the rebellion crystallized as iron; 
that General Grant, planting himself be- 
fore Kichmond, said he would ^'fight it out 
on that line if it took all summer,'' and 
General Sherman's memorable march fifty 
thousand strong from Atlanta to the sea. 
General Grant's campaign ended in the 
surrender of General Lee, and Peace, with 
its golden pinions, alighted on our national 

Abraham Lincoln was again elected 
President, the people seeming impressed 
with the wisdom of his quaint phrase that 
^^it was best not to swap horses while 
crossing a stream." Through all the vi- 
cissitudes of his first term he justified the 
unbounded confidence of the nation, sup- 
porting with no laggard hand, cheering 
and inspiring the citizen soldier with noble 
example and kindly Avord. The reconstruc- 
tion acts, legislation for the enrollment of 


the colored soldier, and every other meas- 
ure of eiifraiiehis(nueiit received liis hearty 
approval, remarking at one time, with 
much feeling, that ''1 hope peace Avill come 
to stay, and tliere will be some black meu 
that can remember that they helped man- 
kind to this great consummation.'- 

Did the colored troops redeem the 
promise made by their friends when 
their enlistment was determined? His- 
tory records exhibitions of bravery and 
endurance which gave their survivors 
and descendants a claim as imper- 
ishable as eternal justice. Go back to 
the swamps of the Carolinas, the Savan- 
nahs of Florida, the jungles of Arkansas, 
or on the dark bosom of the Mississippi, 
Look where you may, the record of their 
rugged pathway still blossoms with deeds 
of noble daringyself-abnegation and a holy 
devotion to the central ideas of the war— 
the freedom of the slave, a necessity for 
the salvation of free government. 

The reading of commanders' reports bring 
no blush of shame. At the terrific assault 
on Fort Hudson, General Banks reported 
they answered ^'every expectation ; no troops 
could have been more daring.'' General 
Butler tells of his transformation from a 
war Democrat to a radical. Riding out at 
early morn to view the battlefield, where 
a few hours before shot and shell flew thick 
and fast, skillfully guiding his horse, that 
hoofs should not profane the sacred dead, 
he there saw in sad confusion where lay 


Roni July, IS-in, Aiiti(HTe, liristol. West ludios— EdiicaltMl at Oraeovillo. W. I. 
( )i'(l:iini(Ml Deacon in lS(iS. j.iid now one of the Foremost Risliops of the 
A. M, K. Chnicli — Noted for Wisdom of Counsel and Great Ability. 



the white and black soldier, who had gone 
down together. The appeal, though mute, 
was irresistible. Stopping his horse and 
raising his hand in the cold, gvey light to 
heaA^en, said: ^^May my tongue cleave to 
the roof of my mouth and my right hand 
forget its cunning if I ever cease to insist 
upon equal justice to the colored man.'- 
It was at the unequal light at Milliken-s 
Bend; it was at Forts Wagner and PilloAV, 
at Petersburg and Ivichmond, the colored 
troops asked to be assigned the posts of 
danger, and there before the iron hail of 
the enemy's musketry *'tliey fell forward 
as fits a man.'' In our memory and affec- 
tions they deserve a fitting place ^^as those 
long loved, and but for a season gone." 

Slavery, shorn of its power, nurtured re- 
venge. On the 14th day of April, 18(55, 
while sitting with his family at a public 
exhibition, Abraham Lincoln was assassi- 
nated, and the nation was in tears. Never 
was lamentation so widespread, nor grief 
so deep; the cabin of the loAvly, the lordly 
mansion of wealth, the byways and high- 
ways, gave evidence of a people's sorroAv. 
^^Men moved about AAdth clinched teeth and 
bowed-doAA^i heads; Avomen bathed in tears 
and found relief, while little children 
asked their mothers Avhy all the people 
looked so mournful," and Ave, as Ave came 
up out of Egypt, lifted up our voices and 
wept. Our friend Avas no more, but in- 
trenched in the hearts of his countrymen 



as one who did iniicli ''to keep the jewel 
of liberty iu the family of nations." 

Since that eventful period the Negro has 
had a checkered career, j)assing through 
the reconstruction period, with its many 
lights and shadows, despite the assaults of 
prejudice and prescription by exclusion 
from most of the remunerative^ callings and 
avocations, partiality in sentencing him to 
the horrors of tlie chain-gang, lynching, 
and burning at the stake. Despite all these 
he has made progress — a i)r()gress often 
unfairly judged by the dominant race. 
Douglass has pithily said: 'VTudge us not 
from the heights on Avhich you stand, but 
from the depths from whence we sprung.'' 
So, with a faith and hope undaunted, we 
scan oiu' country horizon for tlie silver lin- 
ing i)ropitious of a happier day. 

Regarding that crinu* of crimes, lyneh- 
ing by hanging and burning human beings, 
a barbarity unknown in the civilized world 
save in our country, it is cheering to ob- 
serve an awakening of the moral sense evi- 
denced by noble and manly utterance of 
leading journals, notably those of Arkan- 
sas; the Governor of Georgia, and other 
Southern Governors and statesmen, have 
spoken in derogation of this giant crime. 

When others of like standing and State 
influence shall so pronounce, this hideous 
blot upon the national escutcheon will dis- 
appear. It is manly and necessary to pro- 
test when wronged. But a subject class 
( r race does but little for their ameliora- 



tion when content with its denouncement. 
Injustice can be more effectually arraigned 
by others than the victim; his mere proc- 
lamation, however distinct and unanswer- 
able, will be slow of fruition. A measure 
of relief comes from the humane sympa- 
thies of the philanthropist, but the inher- 
ent attraction of forces (less sympathetic, 
perhaps, though indispensable) for his real 
uplifting and protection Avill be in the ratio 
of his morality, learning, and wealth. For 
vice is ever destructive; ignorance ever a 
victim, and poverty ever defenceless. Mor- 
ality should be ever in the foreground of 
all effort, for mere learning or even wealth 
will not make a class of brave, honest men 
and useful citizens; there must be ever an 
intensity of purpose based upon convic- 
tions of truth, and ^^the inevitable oneness 
of physical and moral strength.'' St. Pierre 
de Couberton, an eminent French writer 
on education and training, has pertinently 
said: "Remember that from the cradle to 
the grave struggle is the essence of life, 
as it is the unavoidable aim, the real life 
bringer of all the sons of men. Existence 
is a fight, and has to be fought out; self-de- 
fence is a noble art, and must be practiced. 
Never seek a quarrel, but never shun one, 
and if it seeks you, be sure and fight to 
the last, as long as strength is given you 
to stand, guard your honesty of purpose, 
your good faith; beware of all false seem- 
ing, of all pretence, cultivate arduous 
tasks^ aspire to what is difficult, and do 



persistently what is uncomfortable and un- 
pleasant; love effort passionately, for with- 
out effort there can be no manliness; there- 
fore acquire the habit of self-restraint, the 
habit of painful effort, physical pain, is a 
useful one.'^ With such purpose the Negro 
should have neither servility, bitterness, 
nor regret, but "instinct with the life of the 
present rise with the impulse of the age/^ 




My election to the Common Council of 
the City of Victoria, Vancouver Island, in 
1866, was my first entry to political life, 
followed by re-election for succeeding 

The exercise of the franchise at the polls 
was by ^^viva voce,'' the voter proclaiming 
his vote by stating the name of the candi- 
date for whom he voted in a distinct voice, 
which was audited on the rolls by clerks of 
both parties. 

Alike all human contrivances, this mode 
of obtaining the popular will has its merits 
and demerits. For the former it has the 
impossibility of ballot-stuffing, for the by- 
stander can keep accurate tally; also the 
opportunity for the voter to display the 
courage of his conviction, which is ever 
manly and the purpose of a representative 
Commonwealth. On the other ha^nd, it may 
fail to register the desire of the voter 
whose financial or other obligation may 
make it impolitic to thus openly antago- 
nize the candidate he otherwise would with 
a secret ballot, "that falls as silently as 
snow-flakes fall upon the sod'' and (should) 
execute a freeman^s will as lightning doth 
the will of God." This is its mission, the 



faithful execution of its fiat, the palladium 
of liberty for all the people. Opposition to 
the exercise of this right in a representa- 
tive government is disintegrating by con- 
tention and suicidal in success. It has 
been, and still is, the cause of bitter strug- 
gle in our own country. Disregard of the 
ultimatum of constitutional majorities, the 
foundation of our system of government, 
as the cause of the civil war, the past and 
ever-occurring political corruption in the 
Northern and the chief factor in the race 
troubles in the Southern States, where the 
leaders in this disregard and unlawful ac- 
tion allow the honors and emoluments of 
office to shut out from their view the con- 
stitutional rights of others; and by the 
criminality of their conduct and subter- 
fuge strive to make selfish might honest 

That slavery was a poor school to fit 
men to assume the obligations and duties 
of an enlightened citizenship should 
be readily admitted; that its subjects in 
the Elysium of their joy and thankfulness 
to their deliverers from servitude to free- 
dom, and in ignorance of the politj' of gov- 
ernment, should have been easy prey to 
the unscrupulous is within reason. Still 
the impartial historian will indite that, for 
all that dark and bloody night of recon- 
struction through which they passed, the 
record of their crime and peculation will 
^^pale its ineffectual rajas'' before the blis- 
tering blasts of official corruption, murder. 



and Iviieliiiig that has appalled Christen- 
dom since the government of these South- 
ern States has been assumed by their 
wealth and intelligence. The abnormal 
conditions that prevailed during recon- 
struction naturall}^ produced hostility to 
all who supported Federal authority, 
among whom the Negro, through force of 
circumstances, was prominent and most 
vulnerable for attack, suifered the most 
plij^sically, and subsequently became easy 
prey for tliose who would profit by his dis- 

The attempt to justify this and condone 
this refusal to allow the colored xVmerican 
exercise of civil and constitutional rights 
is based on caste, hatred, and alleged ig- 
norance — conditions that are world-wide — 
and the measure of a i)eople's Christianity 
and the efficiency of republican institu- 
tions can be accurately determined by the 
humanity and zeal displayed in their amel- 
ioration, not in the denial of the right, but 
zealous tuition for its proper exercise. 

During the civil war the national con- 
science, hitherto sluggish, was awakened 
and great desire prevailed to award the 
race the full meed of civil and political 
rights, both as a measure of justice and rec- 
ognition of their fealty and bravery in sup- 
port of the national arm. 

The Freedman's Bureau, Christian and 
other benevolent agencies were inaug- 
urated to fit the freedman for the new ob- 
ligations. Handicapped as he has been in 



many eiideavorSj his record lias been in- 
spiring. Four-fifths of the race for genera- 
tions legally and persistently forbidden to 
learn to read or Avrite; with labor unre- 
quited, a conseryative estimate, in 1898, 
little more than three decades from slay- 
ery, finds 340,000 of their children attend- 
ing 20,300 schools and their i)roperty yal- 
uation |750, 000,000, while in learned pro- 
fessions, journalism, and mercantile pur- 
suits their ability and efficiency command 
the respect and praise of tlie potential 

When the amendments Ayere being con- 
sidered, opinion differed as to the be- 
stowal of the franchise; many fayored only 
those who could read and Ayrite. The pop- 
ularity of this phase of opinion Avas A oiced 
in the folloAying intervicAy Ayith Hon. 
Schuyler Colfax, afterAyard Vice Presi- 
dent, Ayho Ay as at that time Speaker of the 
loAyer house of Congress, and Ayas said to 
haA^e the ^^Presidential bee in his bonnet." 
While ^^SAyinging around the circle he 
touched at Victoria, and the British Colo 
nist of July 29, 1865, made the following- 
mention: ^^A committee consisting of Ab- 
ner Francis and M. W. Gibbs called on 
Hon. Schuyler Colfax, Speaker of the 
House of Eepresentatiyes of the United 
States, yesterday morning. On being in 
troduced by the American Consul, Mr. 
Gibbs proceeded to say that they were 
happy to meet him and tender him on be- 
half of the colored residents of YU- 



toria their esteem and regard. They were 
not unacquainted Avith the noble course he 
had pursued during the great struggle in 
behalf of human liberty in the land of their 
nativity. They had watched Avith intense 
interest the progress of the rebellion and 
rejoiced in the Federal success and sor- 
rowed in its adversity. Now that victory 
had perched on the national standard — a 
standard we believe henceforth and for- 
ever consecrated to impartial liberty — 
they were filled with joy unspeakable. 
And he would allow them to say that it had 
afforded them the greatest pleasure to ob- 
serve tlie alacrity with which the colored 
men of the nation offered and embraced 
the opportunity to manifest their devotion 
and braver}^ in support of the national 

They had full confidence in the magna- 
nimity' of the American people that in the 
reconstruction of the seceded States they 
would grant the race who had proved their 
claim by the most indisputable heroism 
and fidelity, equalitj' before the law, upon 
the ground of immutable justice and im- 
portance of national safety. Without tres- 
passing further on his valuable time they 
would only tender him, as the distin- 
guished Speaker of the popular house of 
f 'ongress, as Avell as the sterling friend of 
freedom, their sincere respect and esteem. 

Mr. Colfax, in reply, said he was truly 
glad to see and meet the committee and 
felt honored by the interview. 



For himself he had CA^er been mii enemy 
of shivery. From his earliest recollections 
he had ever vised his influence against it 
to the extent of his poAver; but its abolition 
was environed by so many difficulties that 
it seemed to require the overruling hand 
of God to consummate its destruction. And 
he did not see how it could have been 
brought about so speedily but for those 
who desired to perpetuate it by raising re- 
bellious hands against the nation. Now, 
with regard to the last sentiment ex- 
pressed, concerning reconstruction, he 
would say that it was occupying the ear- 
nest attention of the best and purest minds 
of the nation. Most men w ere in favor of 
giving the ballot to colored men; the ques- 
tion was to Avhat extent it should be grant- 
ed. Very man}' good men Avere disposed 
to grant it indiscriminately to the ignorant 
as ^ye\l as the more intelligent. For him- 
self he was not, but among the other class. 
If colored men generally Avere as intelli- 
gent as the gentleman who had honored 
him Avith this intervieAA" — for he considered 
the speech he had just listened to among 
the best he had heard on the coast — there 
AA^ould be no trouble; but slaverj^ had made 
that impossible. He knew that the Presi- 
dent — decidedly an anti-slavery man — was 
not in favor of bestoAA'ing the franchise on 
all alike, Avhile Charles Sumner and others 
favored it. 

The honorable gentleman closed his 
remarks by desiring the colored people 



not to consider the Administration in- 
imical to their welfare, if in the adjnst- 
ment the right of suffrage was not be- 
stowed on all, for it was probable that 
reading and writing would be the qualifi- 
cation demanded. He paid a high tribute 
to the colored people of Washington, D. C, 
for their intelligence, moral worth, and in- 
dustry, and said that it was probable that 
the problem of suffrage would be solved in 
the District of Columbia. After a desul- 
tory^ conversation on phases of national 
status succeeding the rebellion, both 
parties seeming well pleased with the 
meeting, the committee retired.'' 

I did not then, nor do I now, agree with 
the views of that distinguished statesman. 
The benignity of the ballot lies in this: It 
was never devised for the protection of the 
strong, but as a guardian for the weak. It 
is not true that a sane man, although un- 
lettered, has not a proper conception of his 
own interests and what will conserve them 
— what will protect them and give the best 
results for his labor. You may fool him 
some of the time, as you do the most as- 
tute, but he will be oftener found among 
those of whom Lincoln said ^^You could not 
fool all the time.'' William Lloyd Garri- 
son, jr., ^^a worthy son of a noble sire," 
pointedly says: Whoever laments the 
scope of suffrage and talks of disfranchis- 
ing men on account of ignorance or pov- 
erty has as little comprehension of the 
meaning of self-government as a blind 


man lias of the colors of the rainbow. I 
declare my belief that we are suffering not 
from a too extended ballot, but from one 
too limited and unrepresentative. We 
enunciate a principle of government, and 
then deny its practice. If experience has 
established anything, it is that the interest 
of one class is never safe in the hands of 
another. There is no class so poor or ig- 
norant in a Republic that it does not know 
its own suffering and needs better than the 
wealthy and educated classes. By the rule 
of justice it has the same right precisely to 
give them legal expression. That expres- 
sion is bound to come, and it is wisest for it 
to come through the ballot box than 
through mobs and violence born of a feel- 
ing of misery and despair.'^ 

James Russell Lowell has said: ^^The 
right to vote makes a safety valve of every 
voter, and the best way to teach a man 
to vote is to give him a chance to practice. 
It is cheaper, too, in the long run to lift 
men up than to hold them down. The bal- 
lot in their hands is less dangerous than a 
sense of wrong in their heads.'' 


Bom in Kentrcky, AuguBt. 1858 — Educated in the Common Schools of that State 
— At Thirty-five Elected Bishop of the A. M. E. Zion Church, Taking 
Higli Rank as a Theologian, Originator and First President 
of tile Nativ)niil Afro Am^^rican Council - Thinker, 
Orator and Leader. 




Among the estimable friendships I made 
on the Pacific Coast forty years ago was 
Philip A. Bellj formerly of New York City, 
one of nature^s noblemen, broad in his hu- 
manity and intellectually great as a jour- 
nalist. As editor of The Elevator, a weekly 
newspaper still published in San Fran- 
cisco, he made its pages brilliant with scin- 
tillations of elegance, wealth of learning, 
and vigor of advocacy. To his request for 
a correspondent I responded in a series of 
letters. I forbear to insert them here, as 
they describe the material and political 
status of British Columbia thirty -five years 
ago — being well aware that ancient history 
is not the most entertaining. But, as I 
read them I cannot but note, in the jollity 
of their introduction, the immature criti- 
cism, consciousness of human fallability, 
broadening of conclusions, mellowed by 
hope for the future that seemed typical of 
a life career. Like the horse in ^^Sheridan's 
Ride,'' their beginning ^^vas gay, with 
Sheridan fifty miles away;" but if they 
were helpful with a truth-axiom or a 
moiety of inspiration^ — as a view of colonial 
conduct of a nation, Avith which we were 



then and are now gTOwing in affinity — the 
purpose was attained. 

At first the affairs of British Columbia 
and Vancouver were administered by one 
Governor, the connection was but nomi- 
nal; Vancouver Island had control by a 
representative Parliament of its own; the 
future seemed auspicious. Later they, feel- 
ing it "in fra dig'^ to divide the prestige 
of government, severed the connection. 
But Vancouver flndirg it a rather expen- 
sive luxurj^, and that the separation en- 
gendered strife and rivalr^^, terminating in 
hostile legislation, determined to perma- 
nently unite Avitli British Columbia. 

But alas, for political happiness. Many 
afterward sighed for former times, when 
Vancouver Island, proud beauty of the 
North, sat laving her feet in the genial 
waters of the Pacific, her lap verdant with 
beautiful foliage and delicious fruits; her 
head raised with peerless majesty to bril- 
liant skies, while sunbeams playing upon 
a brow encircled by eternal snows reflected 
a sheen of glorious splendor; when, con- 
scious of her immense wealth in coal, min- 
erals, and fisheries, her delightful climate 
and geographical position, she bid for com- 
mercial supremacy. It is said of States, as 
of w omen, they are "fickle, coy and hard 
to please.^' For, changed and governed 
from England's Downing Street, "with all 
its red tape circumlocution,'^ "Tile Barn- 
cal,'' incapacity, and "how-not-to-do-if' 



iibilitY that attached to that venerable in- 
stitution, its people were sorely perplexed. 

During the discussion which the nature 
and inefficiency of the Government evoked 
several modes of relief from these embar- 
rassments were warmly espoused, among 
them none more prominent than annexa- 
tion to the United States. It was urged 
with much force that the great Avant of the 
country, immigration and responsible gov- 
ernment, would find their fulfillment in 
such an alliance. All that seemed wanted 
was the ^4iour and the man.'^ The man 
Avas considered present in Leonard Mc- 
Clure, editor of a local, and after- 
ward on the editorial staff of the San 
Francisco Times. He was a man of rare 
ability, a terse writer, and with force of 
logic labored assiduously to promote an- 
nexation. But the ^4iour'' was ^^non est." 
For while it was quite popular and freely 
discussed upon the forum and street, in- 
fluential classes declined to commit them- 
selves to the scheme, the priniar}^ step nec- 
essary before presentation to the respec- 
tive (Tovernments. Among the opposition 
to annexation, naturally, were the official 
class. These gentry being in no way re- 
sponsible to the people, an element ever of 
influence, and believing that by such an 
alliance they would find their "occupation 
gone,^^ gave it no quarter. Added to these 
was another possessed of the prestige and 
power that wealth confers — very conserv- 
ative, timid, cautious, self-satisfied, and 



clreadiii<» innovations of popiilai* i nle, but 
especially republicanism. Amid those twa 
classes, and sprinkled among tln.^ rank and 
file, was found a sentiment extremely pa- 
triotic, with those Avho saw nothing woi-th 
living for outside of the purview of the 
^^tight little island/^ 

Th(>r(^ S(M^ms a (h^stiny in iIk^ ]>r(> 
priety of territory changing dominion. 
God seems to have given this beautiful 
earth, Avith its lands, to be utilized 
and a source of bl(\ssing, not to be 
locked hy the promptings of avarice nor 
the clog of incapacity; that it should be 
occupied by those who, (utlu^r by the acci- 
dent of locality or super ior ability, ciin 
make it the most (^tti( i(Mit in development. 
There should be, and usually is, regard for 
acquired rights, save in the case of Afri- 
cans, Indians, oi- otluM* w(nik peoples, Avhen 
cupidity and power hold sweet converse. 
Nor should we slightly estimate the feel- 
ing of loyalty to the land of birth and the 
hearths of our fathers, the impulse that 
nerves the arm to strike, and the soul to 
dare; that brings to our country's altar all 
that we have of life to repel the invader of 
our homes or the usurper of our liberties. 
That has given to the world a Washing- 
ton, a Toussant, a Bozzaris — a loyalty that 
will ever stand with cloven helmet and 
crimson battle-ax in the van of civilization 
and progress. But, like other ennobling 
sentiments, it can be perverted, allowing 
it to permeate every vicAv of government, 



finding its ultimatum in the conclusion 
tha-t, if government is despotic or ineffi- 
cient, it is to be endured and not removed. 
Such patriots are impressed with the con- 
viction that the people were made for gov- 
ernments, and not governments for the 
people. A celebrated poet has said — 

^^Our country's claim is fealty, 
I grant you so; but then 
Before man made us citizens 
Great Nature nuuh^ us men.'' 

Men with essential wonts and laudable 
aspirations, the attainment of which can 
be accelerated by the fostering love and en- 
lightened zeal of a progressive govern- 

In 1859 at Esquimault, the naval station 
for British Columbia, J had a pleasant 
meeting with Lad}^ Franklin, widow of 
Sir John Franklin, the Arctic explorer, 
Avho sailed in 1845 and was supposed to 
have perished in 1847. With a woman's 
devotion, after many years of absence, she 
was still in quest, hoping, from ship officer 
or seaman of her Majesty's service, some 
ray of light would yet penetrate the gloom 
which surrounded his ^^king ofT'TwHiiat 
terra incognito of the North pole, whose 
attraction for the adventurer in search of 
scientific and geographical data in the 
mental world is akin to its magnetic at- 
traction in the physical. To her no tidings 

(7) I 



came, bnt still lingered ^Miope, the balm 
and life-blood of the soul.'' 

Ill 1808 the union of British (Columbia 
with the Dominion of Canada was the po- 
litical issue, absorbiniL* all otln^rs. lint the 
allin-(Mn(^nts of its <;rand(nir and the ma<i- 
nitude of promises! i (^sults werc^ insufl[ici(Mir 
to allay o])i)osition, (*vei* enconnt(M*ed on 
proposal to chanf^e a constitutional polity 
by those at the tinn* (Mijoyin<» otHcial hon- 
ors or those who benc^tit thi'oujL^h contracts 
or trade, and are (Mii])hatic in tluMr protest; 
these, however, constitute^ an el(Mn(Mit that 
is unwittingly the safety valv(^ of consti 
tutional government. AA^lu^'ever the peo- 
pl(^ I'ule th(^ pul)lic widfare is (ner endan- 
gered when(^v(a* radical changers aiM^ to l)e 
inti*odu((Ml, unaccom])ani(Ml with a vig- 
orous op])osition. A In^althy oi)i)o.<ition is 
the Avinnowing fan tliat sei)arates the* poli- 
tician's chaff from th(^ patriot's wln^at, pre- 
senting the most desirable of llu^ substan- 
tial ebnnent n(HMl(Ml. At the conv(Mition in 
1808 at Fort Val(% called by A. Decosmos, 
editor of The British Colonist, and others, 
for th(^ purpose of getting an expression of 
the peo})le of British Columbia regarding 
union Avith th(* Dominion of Canada (and 
of Avhich the writer- Avas a delegate), the re- 
duction of liabilities, the lessening of taxa- 
tion, incrc^ase of revenue, restriction of ex- 
penditurc^ and the cMilargement of the peo- 
ple's liberties Avere the goal, all of Avhich 
have been attained since entrance to the 
Dominion, Avhich has become a bright 



jewel in his Majesty's Crown, reflecting a 
civilization, liberal and progressive, of a 
loyal, happy people. 

The ^^British American Act,'- which cre- 
ated the Dominion of Canada, differs 
from the Constitntion of the United 
States in important particulars. It 
grants to the Dominional, as well as 
the provincial Legislatures the ^Svant of 
confidence principle,'' by which an objec- 
tionable ministrj^ can be immediatelj^ re- 
moved; at the same time centralizing the 
national authority as a guard against the 
heresy of "State rights" superiority. 
Among the terms stipulated, the Dominion 
was to assume the colonial debt of British 
Columbia, amounting to over two million 
dollars; the building of a road from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific within a stipulated 
time. The alliance, however, contained 
more advantage than the ephemeral assist- 
^ince of making a road or the assumption 
of a debt, for with confederation came the 
abolition of the "one-man system of gov- 
ernment" and in its place a responsible 
one, with freedom of action for enterprise, 
legislation to encourage development, and 
assist budding industries; the permanent 
establishment of schools, and the disburse- 
ment of revenue in accordance with popu- 
lar will. 

It is ever and ever true that "right is of 
no sex, and truth of no color." The lib- 
<^ral ideas, ever struggling for utterance 
and ascendancy under every form of gov- 



erument, are not the exclusive property of 
any community or nation, but the heritage 
of mankind, and their victories are ever in- 
spiring. For, as tlie traveler sometimes 
ascends the hill to determine his bearings, 
refresh his vision, and invigorj;te himself 
for greater endeavors, so we, by sometimes 
looking beyond the sphere of our own lo- 
cal activities, obtain higher views of the 
breadth and magnitude of the principles 
we cherish, and i)erceive that freedom's 
battle is identical wherever waged, 
whether her sons fight to abolish the relics 
of feudalism or to possess the ballot, the 
reflex influence of their example is mu- 
tually beneficial. 

But of the Dominion of Canada, wlio 
shall Avrite its "rise, decline, and fall?'' 
Springing into existence in a day, with a 
poi)ulation of 4,000,000 people — a number 
larger than that possessed by the United 
States when they commenced their great 
career — its promise is pregnant with be- 
nign probabilities. May it be the fruition 
of hope that the banner of the Dominion 
and the flag of our Republic, locked and 
interlocked, may go forward in generous 
rivalry to bless mankind. 

The most rapid instrumentalities in 
the development of a new country 
are the finding and prospecting for 
mineral deposits. The discovery of large 
deposits of gold in the quartz and 
alluvial area of British Columbia in 1858 
was the incipiency of the growth and pros- 



perity it now enjoys. But although the 
search for the precious is alluring, the min- 
ing of the grosser metals and minerals, 
such as iron, lead, coal, and others, are 
much more reliable for substantial re- 

The only mine of importance in British 
Columbia previous to 1867 was at Naniamo, 
where there was a large output of bitumi- 
nous coal. In that year anthracite was 
discovered by Indians building fire on a 
broken vein that ran from Mt. Seymour, on 
Queen Charlotte Island, in the North Pa- 
cific. It was a high grade of coal, and on 
account of its density and burning Avithout 
flame, was the most valuable for smelting 
and domestic purposes. A company had 
been formed at Victoria Avliich had spent 
$60,000 prospecting for an enduring and 
paying vein, and thereafter prepared for 
development hy advertising for tenders to 
build railroad and wharfs for shipping. 
Being a large shareholder in the company, 
I resigned as a director and bid. It was 
not the lowest, but I was awarded the con- 
tract. The Hudson Baj Co. steamship Ot- 
ter, having been chartered January, 1869, 
with fifty men, comprising surveyor, car- 
penters, blacksmiths, and laborers, with 
timber, rails, provisions, and other neces- 
saries for the work I embarked at Victoria. 
Queen Charlotte Island was at that time 
almost a ^^terra incognito,'' sparsely inhab- 
ited solely by scattered tribes of Indians 
on the coast lines, which were onh^ occa- 



sionally visited by lier Majesty's ships for 
discovery and capture of small craft en- 
gaged in the whisky trade. 

Passing through the Straits of Georgia^ 
stopping at Fort Simpson, and then 
to Queen Charlotte Island, entering 
the mouth of Skidegate Eiver, a few 
miles up, we reached the conipanj^'s 
quarters, consisting of several wooden 
buildings for residence, stores, shops, 
etc. At the mouth and along the river 
were several Indian settlements, com 
prising huts, the sides of wliich were of 
rough riven planks, with roof of leaves of a 
tough, fibrous nature. At the crest was an 
opening for the escape of smoke from fires 
built on the ground in the center of the 
enclosure. As the ship passed sloAvly up 
the river we were hailed hj the shouting 
of the Indians, who ran to the river side, 
got into their canoes and followed in great 
numbers until we ancliored. Thej then 
swarmed around and over the ship, salut- 
ing the ship's company as ^^King George's 
men," for such the English are known and 
called by them. They were peaceful and 
docile, lending ready liands to our landing 
and afterward to the cargo. I was sur- 
prised, while standing on the ship, to hear 
my name called by an Indian in a canoe at 
the side, coupled with encomiums of the 
native variety, quite flattering. It proved 
to be one who had been a domestic in my 
family at Victoria. He gave me kind wel- 
come, not to be ignored, remembering that 



I was iu ^^tlie enemy's country so to 
speak. Besides, such a reception Avas so 
much the more desirable, as I was depend- 
ent upon native hxbor for excavating and 
transportation of heavy material along the 
line of the road. While their work was 
not despatched with celerity of trained la- 
bor, still, as is general with labor, they 
earned all they got. ^^One touch of nature 
makes the whole world kin.'' I found many 
apt, some stujud; honestj' and dishonesty 
in usual quantities, with craft peculiar to 
savage life. 

Their mode of stealing hy stages was 
peculiar. The thing coveted was first 
hid nearby; if no inquiry Avas made 
for a period deemed sufficientl}^ long the 
change of ownership became complete and 
its removal to their own hut followed, 
to be disposed of Avhen opportunity of- 
fered. If you had a particle of evidence 
and made a positive accusation, with the 
threat of "King George's man-of-Avar," it 
was likely to be forthcoming by being 
placed secretly nearby its proper place. 
But through it we see the oneness of hu- 
man frailtj^, Avhether in the Avatered stock 
of the corporation or that of its humble 
servitor the milkman, there is kinship. To 
get something for nothing is the "ignis 
fa tuns" ever in the lead. My experience 
during a year's stay on the island, and 
constant intercourse Avith the natives, im- 
pressed me more and more with the con- 
viction that we are all mainly the crea- 



tiires of environments; yet througli all the 
strata and fiber of human nature there is ^ 
a chord that beats responsive to kindness 
— a ^^anguage that the dumb can speak, 
and that the deaf can understand.-' 

The English mode of dealing Avith semi- 
civilized dependents is vastly different from 
ours. While vigorously administering the 
law for proper government^ protection of 
life, and suixpression of debauchery by un- 
scrupulous traders, they inspired respec-t 
for the laws and the love of their patrons. 
Uprisings and massacres among Indians in 
her iMajesty's dominions are seldom, if 
ever, to be chronicled. Many of our Indian 
wars will remain a blot on the page of im- 
partial history, superinduced, as they were, 
by wanton murder or tlie covet of lands 
held by them by sacred treaties, Avhicli 
should have been as sacredly inviolate. 
lowed by decimation of tribes by toleration 
of the whisky trade and the conveyance of 
loathsome disease. Tliecliniateof the island 
was much more pleasant than expected. 
The warm ocean currents on the Pacific 
temper the atmosphere, rendering it more 
genial than the same degree of latitude on 
the Atlantic. A feAV inches of snow, a thin 
coat of ice on the river, were the usual 
attendants of winter. But more frequently 
our camp was overhung by heavy clouds, 
broken by Mt. Seymour, precipitating much 

After being domiciled we proceeded 
v'ith the resident superintendent to view 



the company's property, comprising sev- 
eral thousand acres. liising in altitude, 
and on different levels, as we approached 
Mt. Seymour, croppings of coal were quite 
frequent, the broken and scattered veins 
evidencing volcanic disturbance. The vein 
most promising was several hundred feet 
above the level of the sea, and our intended 
wharf survey was made, Avhich showed 
heavj^ cuttings and blasting to obtain 
grade for the road. The work was puslied 
with all the vigor the isolated localitj^ and 
climatic conditions allowed. Eain almost 
incessant was a great impediment, as well 
as were the occasional strikes of the In- 
dian labor, which was never for more 
wages, but for more time. The coal from 
the croppings which had been at first ob 
talned for testing, had been carried by 
them in bags, giving them in the "coin of 
the realm'' so many pieces of tobacco for 
each bag delivered on the ship. There Avas 
plenty of time lying around on those trips, 
and they took it. On the advent of the 
new era thej complained that "King 
Oeorge men'' took all the time and gave 
them none, so tliej frequently quit to go 
in quest. The nativity of my skilled labor 
was a piece of national patchwork — a com- 
posite of the canny Scotch, the persistent 
and witty Irish, the conservative but in- 
domitable English, the effervescent 
French, the plegmatic German, and the 
irascible Italian. I found this variety ben- 
eficial, for the usual national and race bias 



was sufticieutl}^ in evidence to preclude a 
combination to retard tlie work. I had 
tliree Americans, that were neitlier wliite 
nor colored; they were born black; one of 
them — Tanibry, the cook — will ever have 
my grateful remembrance for his fatherly 
kindness and attention during an illness. 

The conditions there were such that 
threw many of mj men off their feet. 
Women and liquor had much the ^^right of 
way.^' I was more than ever impressed 
with the belief that there was nothing so 
conclusive to a Avortliy manhood as self- 
restraint, both morally and j)hysically, and 
the more vicious and unrestraining the en- 
vironment the greater the achievement. 
Miners had been at work placing many 
tons of coal at the mouth of the mine dur- 
ing the making of the road, the grade of 
which was of two elevations, one from the 
mine a third of the distance, terminating 
ai a chute, from which the coal fell to cars 
on the lower level, and from thence to the 
wharf. After the completion of the road 
and its acceptance by the superintendent 
and the storage of a cargo of coal on the 
wharf, the steamer Otter arrived, was 
loaded, and despatched to San Francisco, 
being the first cargo of anthracite coal ever 
unearthed on the Pacific seaboard. The 
superintendent, having notified the direc- 
tors at Victoria of his intention to return, 
they had appointed me to assume the of- 
fice. I was so engaged, preparing for the 
next shij^ment on the steamer. 




My sojourn on the island was not with- 
out its vicissitudes and dangers, and one 
of the latter I shall ever remember — one 
mingled, as it Avas, with antics of Neptune, 
that capricious god of the ocean, and res- 
ignation to what seemed to promise my 
end with all sublime things. The stock 
of oil brought for lubricating cars and ma- 
chinery having been exhausted, I started a 
beautiful morning in a canoe with three 
Indians for their settlement at the mouth of 
Skidegate River for a temporary supply. 
After a few hours' paddling, gliding down 
the river serenely, the wind suddenly 
arose, increasing in force as we ap- 
pi'oaclied the mouth in the gulf. The high 
walls of the river sides afforded no oppor- 
tunity to land. The storm continued to in- 
crease in violence, bringing billow^s of 
rough sea from the ocean, our canoe dan- 
cing like a feather, one moment on a high 
crest by its skyward leap, and in the next 
to an abyss deep, with walls of sea on 
either side, shutting out a view of the hori- 
zon, while I, breathless with anxious hope, 
waited for the su'cceeding wave to again 
lift the frail bark. The better to preserve 



the equilibrium of the canoe — a convey- 
ance treacherous at the best — wrapped in 
a blanket in the bottom of the canoe I laid, 
looking into the faces of the Indians, con- 
torted by fright, and listened to their i)e 
culiar and mournful death wail, ^Svhile the 
gale whistled aloft his tempest tune. " 

I afterward learned that they had a su- 
perstition based upon the loss of many of 
their tribe under like conditions, that es- 
cape was impossible. The alarm and dis- 
trust in men, aquatic from birth, in their 
own waters was to me appalling. I seemed 
to have ^^ooked death in the face'' — and 
what a rush of recollections that had been 
long forgotten, of actions good and bad, 
the latter seeming the most, hurried, ser- 
ried, but distinct through niy excited brain; 
then a thought, bringing a calm content, 
that ^^To every man upon this earth death 
Cometh soon or late;'' and with a fervent 
resignation of myself to God and to what I 
believed to be inevitable; then a lull in the 
wind, and, after many attempts, we were 
able to cross the mouth of the river to the 
other side — the place of destination. 

In 1869 I left Queen Charlotte Island 
and returned to Victoria; settled m\ busi- 
ness preparatory to joining my family, then 
at Oberlin, Ohio. It was not without a 
measure of regret that I anticipated my 
departure. There I had lived more than a 
decade; where the geniality of the climate 
was excelled only by the graciousness of 
the people; there unreservedly the frater- 



nal grasp of brotherhood; there I had re- 
ceived social and political recognition; 
there niv domestic ties had been intensified 
by the birth of my children, a warp and 
woof of consciousness that time cannot 
obliterate. Then regret modified, as love 
of home and country asserted itself. 

^^Breatlies there a man with soul so deact 
Who never to himself hath saidi..-^--''''''''^ 

^This is my native land'^.^^-^-^ 
Whose heart has not within him burned 
As homeward footsteps he has turned 
From wandering on a foreign strand?'' 

En route my feelings were peculiar. A 
decade had pasesd, fraught with momen- 
tous results in the history of the nation. 
I had left California disfranchised and my 
oath denied in a ^^court of justice'' (?); left 
my country to all appearances enveloped 
in a moral gloom so dense as to shut out 
the light of promise for a better civil and 
political status. The star of hope glim- 
mered but feebly above the horizon of con^ 
tumely and oppression, prophetic of the 
destruction of slavery and the enfranchise- 
ment of the freednian. I was returning, 
and on touch of my country's soil to have 
a new baptism through the all-pervading 
genius of universal liberty. I had left po- 
litically ignoble; I was returning pano- 
plied with the nobility of an American citi- 
zen. Hitherto regarded as a pariah, I had 
neither rejoiced at its achievement nor sor- 



rowed for its adversitj ; uow every patri- 
otic pulse beat quicker and heart throb 
wanner, on realization that niy country 
gave constitutional guarantee for the com- 
mon enjoyment of political and civil lib- 
erty, equality before the law — inspiring a 
dignity of manhood, of self-reliance and op- 
portunit}' for elevation hitherto unknown. 

Then doubt, alternating, would present 
the immense problems awaiting popular 
solution. Born in the seething cauldron of 
civil war, they had been met in the arena 
of fervid Congressional debate and i)olit- 
ical conflict. The amendments to the Con- 
stitution had been passed, but was their in- 
scription a record of the crystallization of 
public sentiment? Subsequent events 
have fully shoAvn that only to the mag- 
nanimity and justice of the American peo- 
ple and the fruition of time can they be 
commended. Not to believe that these 
problems will be rightfully solved is to 
doubt not only the efficacy of the basic 
principles of our Government, but the di- 
vinity of truth and justice. To these rounds 
of hope's ladder, while eager in obtaining 
wisdom, the Negro should cling with te- 
nacity, with faith ^^a higher faculty than 
reason-' unconquerable. 

Having resolved to locate in some part 
of the South for the purpose of practicing 
law, I had while in Victoria read the Eng- 
lish Common Law, the basis of our coun- 
try's jurisprudence, under Mr. Ring, an 
English barrister. Soon after my arrival 



in Oberlin, Ohio, where my family, four 
years before, had preceded me, I entered 
the law department of an Oberlin business 
college, and after graduation proceeded 
Soutii, the first time since emancipation. 
In an early chapter I described my first 
contact with and impressions of slavery, 
when a lad; then the hopelessness of ab- 
ject servitude and consciousness of unre- 
quited toil had its impress on the brow of 
the laborer. Now cheerfulness, a spirit of 
industry, enterprise, and fraternal feeling 
replaced the stagnant liumdrum of slavery. 
Nor was progress ob;^ervable only among 
the freedmen. Many evidences of kindness 
and sympathy ^yvvv sliov, ]i and expressed 
by former owners for- the moral and mental 
advancement of their former bondsmen, 
whicli, to a great degree, unfortunately, 
was counterbalanced by violence and per- 

My brother, Jonathan C.Gibbs, was tlien 
Secretary of State of Florida, with Gov- 
ernor Hart as executive. He had had the 
benefit of a collegiate education, having 
graduated at Dartmouth, New Haven, and 
had for some years filled the pulpit as a 
Presbyterian minister. The stress of re- 
construction and obvious necessity for 
ability in secular matters induced him to 
enter official life. Naturally indomitable, 
he more than fulfilled the expectations of 
his friends and supporters by rare ability 
as a thinker and speaker, with unflinching 
fidelity to his i^artj principles. I found 



him at Tallahassee, the capital, in a well- 
appointed residence, but his sleeping pla(*e 
in the attic contracted, and, as I perceived, 
considerable of an arsenal. He said that 
for better a antage it had been his resting 
place for several months, as his life had 
been threatened by the "Ku Klnx,'' that 
band of midnight assassins whose deeds of 
blood and carnage darken so many pages 
of our national history, and was the con- 
stant terror of white and black adherents 
to the national Government's policy of en- 
franchisement. He Avas hopeful of better 
conditions in Florida, and introduced me 
to Governor Hart. Both urged me to lo- 
cate in the State, promising me their sup- 
port. I highly appreciated the affection 
of the one and the proffered friendship of 
the other. But the feeling paramount 
was that my brother had "won his spurs'^ 
by assiduity and fidelity through the scath- 
ing and fiery ordeal of those troublesome 
times; that it Avould ill become me to profit 
or serenely rest beneath the laurels he had 
won. It Avas the last interview or sight 
of my brother. Subsequently after a three 
hours' speech, he went to his office and 
suddenly died of apoplexy. 

I continued my tour of observation, and, 
having been appointed a delegate from 
Ohio to a national convention to be held 
in Charleston, South Carolina, I attended. 
It Avas the first assembly of the kind at 
Avhich I had been present since emancipa- 
tion. I had hitherto met many conveu- 



tions of colored meu having for their ob- 
ject the amelioration of oppressive condi- 
tions. This gathering was nnlike any sim- 
ilar meeting. The deliberations of the con- 
vention presented a combination of a 
strong intellectual grasp of present needs 
and their solution, with much uninformed 
groping and strife for prominence, features 
of procedure I have observed not confined 
to Negro assemblies. 

The majority were unlettered, but ear: 
nest in their mental toiling for protection 
to life and equality before the law. Hith- 
erto the purpose had been to make earnest 
appeals to the law-making power for such 
legislation as would abolish slavery and 
award equal justice — the first supported 
by the national conscience, but mainly as a 
military necessit}, was a ^^fait accompli;'' 
the other had been legislatively awarded, 
but for its realization much more was nec- 
essary than its simple indentification on 
the statute books of a nation, when public 
sentiment is law. More than a third of a 
century has now passed, enabling a view 
more dispassionate and accurate of the 
conditions surrounding the freedmen di- 
rectly after emancipation and the instru- 
mentalities designed for fitting him for cit- 

It is not surprising, neither is he blame- 
worthy, if in the incipiency of joy for free- 
dom bestowed he could not properly esti- 
mate the factors necessary to form an 
homogenous citizenship. The ways for two 




centuries had been divergent paths. The 
dominant claiming and exercising, as an 
heirh)()m, every civil and political right; 
the subordinate, with knowledge the most 
meager of their. application or limits, by 
compulsion was made to concede the claim. 
Neither is it singular that i)articipation in 
the exercise of these rights by the freed- 
man should have created a determined op 
position in a majority of the former, who 
claimed their fitness to rule as the embodi- 
ment of the wealth and intelligence (which 
are generally the ruling factors Avorld- 
wide), and would have at an early date de- 
rived a just ^^power from the consent of 
the governed,'- did not history re<:ord the 
unnecessary and inhuman means resorted 
to to extort it, the obliquity of which can 
be erased only by according him tln^ rights 
of an American citizen. Mutual hostility, 
opposition on the one hand to the assump- 
tion and exercise of these rights, and con- 
sequent distrust by the freedman, often 
fostered by unscrupulous leaders, have 
been alike detrhnental to both classes, but 
especially so to the Negro, for his constant 
need in the Southland is the cordial friend- 
ship and helping hand of "hin brother in 
white.'' He deserves it for his century of 
unrequited labor in peace and in war for 
fidelity to the tender ties committed to 
his care. Anti-revolutionist in his nature, 
he Avill continue to merit it and possibly 
save the industrial life in the South in 
tli(^ coming conflict of capital and labor. 



Tliat, as a class, they are in antagonism 
to the prevailing political sentiment is the 
legitimate result of the manner of their 
emancipation and a commendable grati- 
tude and kinship for the party through ./ ^ 
which they obtained their freedom. But ^ ^ 
Gibbon, in his ^^Decline and Fall of JSom^/' ? 
has said that ^^gratitude is expensive,'' and 
so the Negro has found it, and is beginning 
to echo the sentiment and Avould gladly 
hail conditions and opportunity where he 
could, after thirty-five years of blood and 
fldelit}', be less partisan and more frater- 
nal politically, conscious his united affilia- 
tion with his earlj^ alliance, and conse- 
quent ostracism of the opposition has 
given him a ^4mrd road to travel.'' Com- 
mendable as has been his devotion, he finds 
commendation a limited currency and not 
negotiable for the protection and benefits 
that should accompany the paladium of 
citizenship. While his treatment by the 
Democratic party has made a continuous 
political relation compulsory, it is unfor- 
tunate; for the political afflnitj^ of no other 
class of American citizens is judged by the 
accident of birth. It is detrimental to the 
voter whose proclivity is thereby deter- 
mined. Wherever the Negro vote, in the 
estimation of any party, is an uncertain 
quantity, its value as a factor will have in- 
creased, consolidated, and in numbers con- 
trolling, it has been considered a menace 
and vigorously eliminated. 



This view has to an extent an auxiliary 
in certain Kepubliean circles, where it is 
avowed that the party could get in the 
South a large accession of hitherto Demo- 
cratic voters, giving it a commanding in- 
fluence, but for its colored contingent, 
which is averred to be repellant. There 
may be difference of opinion as to the merit 
of such conclusions and the fitness of their 
rehearsal ^^to the marines;"' but none as to 
the measure of welcome of those that hold 
them. However, given that they are cor- 
rect. Self-respect and a desire to help the 
old party can go hand in hand, and when 
possible in a manly way, room should be 
made for such anticipated accession. 

There is another phase of present con- 
ditions that deserves, and I have no 
doubt has claimed, attention. It is the 
emphatic trend of the national leaders 
of the party to conciliate the hith- 
erto discordant elements in the South 
in the interest of national harmony, an 
object lesson of which was presented by 
the late President on his Southern tour. 
But few years have elapsed since no man 
seeking a renomination on the Republican 
ticket would have put on and worn a Con- 
federate badge. This President McKinley 
did, receiving the indiscriminate applause 
and the concurrence of his own party. 
Such an act, which is not only allowable, 
but commendable, would formerly have 
been political suicide. This being a move- 
ment in the house of his political alliance^ 



it is up to the Negro to consider which is 
his best interest, should the olive branch 
of political friendship be extended by those 
from whom he receives his chief support. 
Under like conditions, Eis white brother 
would have no hesitancy. 

There is yet another phase which 
indicates the Negro in jeopardy on 
industrial lines. A few j'^ears hence 
the South will have ceased to be chiefly 
agricultural. Mills for cotton, iron, and 
other factories will have dotted hilltop 
and valley, and Avitli them will come the 
Northern operative with his exclusive 
^^unions-' and trade prejudice, shutting the 
doors of mills and foundries against him. 
To meet this scramble for favor from the 
wealth and intelligence of the Southland 
— the ruling factors — he should avail him- 
self of every appliance for fostering har- 
mony and co-operation along all the lines 
of contact. In slaverj'^ and in his subse- 
quent journey in freedom he has suffered 
much. But what nation or people have es- 
caped that ordeal who have made mark in 
the world's history? There is now prospec- 
tive unfriendh' legislation in several 
Southern States; also th^ lowest of the 
whites, as they deem occasion may require, 
go, often undisturbed, on shooting and 
lynching expeditions. 

The problem that continues to force it- 
self for solution is. How the innocent are 
to receive immunity from these outrages 
or a fair trial, when accused of crinie. 



These being undej' the purview of Htate 
sovereignty, tlie Federal arm is not only 
powerless, but there exists no Northern 
sentiment favoring drastic means for their 
correction. Hence it is evident that relief 
can onl}^ come from those who fashion the 
sentiment tliat crystallizes into law. But 
with the bitter is mingled the sweet; much 
of his advancement along educational and 
material lines is due to the liberalitj' of the 
white people of the South, who, it has been 
computed, have contributed ono hundred 
millions of dollars since emancipation by 
taxes and donations for his education, and 
there are many evidences that the best 
thouiglit of the South is in line with Negro 
employment and his educational advance- 
ment in the belief that the more general 
the intelligence the greater the State's 
progress, morally and materially. This 
conviction was emphatically expressed by 
an over-^vhelming negative xote in the Ar- 
kansas Legislature recently, where a meas- 
ure was introduced to abandon him to his 
own taxable resources for education. The 
ratio of his moral and material product 
will be the measure of his gratitude for 
this great boon. For, after all, many of 
^^our great dangers are not from without.'' 

General , a leading Democrat of this 

State, and an unmistakable friend of the 
negro, referring to the above evidence of 
good feeling, said he did not see why I, 
an4 other reputed leaders, in view of such 
evidences of friendship, (Ji(J not induce our 

Editor and Publisher of "Colored American," Washington, D. C. 

Founder of " Colored World " and ''Indianapolis Freeman" Cons|icuous as a 
Leader and Enterprisinj^ as a Jouinalist. 



people to be fraternal politically. I replied 
that the effort had once been made, but 
that the Democratic party, intrenched as 
it was in large majorities in the South, ^^+Ty 
ways that are dark and tricks that are 
vain,'' its leaders say they ^^do not need, 
neither do they solicit^ the colored vote; 
but if they choose, they nia}^ so vote.'' He 
said that certainh' had a ringing sound of 
independence and was uninviting as an an- 
nouncement — an indei)endence, however, 
that will not forever outlive the vagaries 
of sound, for it is not unlikely that he 
will not only vote the ticket, but be ear- 
nestly^ solicited to do so. For it will hap- 
pen, during the whirligig of time and ac- 
tion, in my i)arty as well as others, that 
there will be a change of policies, new is- 
sues, local dissatisfaction, friction, contem- 
plated antagonism and the political arith- 
metic sounded. But I cannot but believe 
that the clannishness of the Negro has 
been the boomerang that has knocked him 
out of much sympatln, being impractical 
as a political factor and out of harmony 
with the material policies of the Southern 

I replied I had thought the highest ideal 
of patriotism was adherence to measures 
materially as w ell as politically that were 
for the benefit of the whole people. 

He said: ^^I know your party preach that 
they have a monopoly of wisdom; but the 
fact is the wisest statesmen of the world 
are divided in opinion as to the benefits 



claimed for the leading policies of your 
party. But how do they benefit you, as a 
dependent class? Your immediate need is 
employment and good educational facili- 
ties. You should be less sentimental and 
more practical. You may honestly believe 
in a protective tariff, having for its object 
the protection of the American Avorking- 
man, but does it help you when you know 
that the doors of mills, foundries, and man- 
ufactories are shut against you? As to 
the currency, you are at a disadvantage 
when you attempt to antagonize the finan- 
cial views of your employers. 

^^It reminds me of an incident,'' he con- 
tinued, "in mj native town in A^irginia, not 
long after reconstruction. There had been 
a drought and short crop, succeeded by a 
pretty hard winter. My father, whose pol- 
itics, you may well judge, I being ^a chip 
of the old block,' without soliciting money 
or favor, threw open his cellar, wherein 
was stowed many bushels of sweet pota- 
toes; invited all the destitute to come. It 
is needless to say they came. In the spring 
Tobey, the Negro minister of the Baptist 
Church — a man illiterate, but with much 
native sense — after morning service, said: 
^Brethren, there's gwine to be a 'lection 
here next week, and I wants you all to 
vote in de light dat God has gin you to 
see de light, but I spects to vote wid de 
taters.' Now, this may seem ludicrous, but 
Tobey, in that act, was a fit representative 
of the white man in politics — for every 



class of American citizens except the Ne- 
gro divide their vote and put it where to 
them personally it will do the most good/' 

"Much/' I replied, "that you have said 
is undoubtedly true. But can you wonder 
at the Negro's cohesion? Is it not a fact 
that his is the only class of citizens that 
your party deny equal participation in the 
franchise, and unjustly discriminate 
against in the application of the laws? 
AVhere better could a change of conduct 
which you would admire and he so happily 
embrace, be inaugurated than within 3 our 
own political household; where could no- 
bility of character be more grandly dis- 
played than by the abolition of these vi- 
cious hindrances to the uplifting of the 
Aveak and lowly?'' 

"Be that as it may," he replied, "your 
race is not in a condition to make friends 
by opposing the prevailing local policies of 
their environments." 

I have narrated this interview for the 
reason that it is a fitting type of the views 
of friends of the Negro of the South who 
somehow fail to see the difficulty in his 
fraternizing with them in the midst of so 
much political persecution and bodily out- 
rage. I referred in the above interview 
to an effort of colored leaders to assimilate 
with Southern politics. 




Ill 1876 (twenty-five years ago) I was 
President of a National Convention held 
at Nashville, Tenn, and of which H. V. Red- 
held, an able correspondent of the ^^Cin- 
cinnati Commercial,'' made the following 
iindnlj^ flattering mention: ^^Miffliii W. 
Gibbs, of Arkansas, was selected as Presi- 
dent. It may be interesting to knoAV that 
Gibbs is strongly in favor of Bristoe, now 
an aspirant for the Presidency. He will 
likely be a delegate from Arkansas to the 
National Republican Convention at Cin- 
cinnati. He is a lawyer, one of the fore- 
most of his race in Arkansas. He is rather 
slender and a genteel-looking man, with 
something in his features that denotes su- 
periority^' (^^Thougli poor in thanks,'^ Red- 
fleld, yet I thank thee.) ^^His speech upon 
taking the chair, was another event. It 
was the third good speech of the day and 
calculated to leave the believers of internal 
inferiority in something of a muddle. 

"He made a manlj' plea for equal rights 
for liis race. All they wanted was an equal 
chance in the battle of life. They did not 
desire to hinder any man for exercising 
his political rights as he saw fit, and all 
thev claimed was liberty of thought and 



action for themselves. He was sorry there 
was occasion for a convention of black men 
to consider black men's status. The fact 
alone was evidence that the race had not 
been accorded right and justice. Of the 
treatment of his race in Arkansas he had 
little to complain of, but sj)oke bitterly of 
the murders at Vicksburg, Miss. He gave 
the Eepublican party, as administered at 
Washington, several blows under the chin. 
He complained of bad treatment of col- 
ored men by that party, notwithstanding 
all its professions. He made the bold dec- 
laration that all the whites of the South 
need do to get their votes was to promise 
equal and exact justice and stand to it. 
All they wanted was their rights as Amer- 
ican citizens and would go into the party 
that would secure them. He said the ques- 
tion primarily demanding the attention of 
the convention were educational and polit- 
ical, and he hoped the proceedings would be 
so orderly as to convince the whites pres- 
ent that we Avere capable of self-control. 
His speech had a highlj^ independent flavor 
and the particular independent passages 
were applauded by whites and blacks 

While the call for the convention was 
not distinctly political, that feature of the 
proceedings was the most pronounced. For 
at that early day, through an experience 
the most bitter, the lesson had been 
learned that politics was not the panacea, 
but that our affiliation Avith the Repub- 



licau party was the maiu offence. Hence 
a disposition to fraternize with Southern 
politicians for race protection and opportu- 
nity had many adherents, and voiced by 
Governor Pinclibaclv and other prominent 
leaders in the South, who, while preferring 
to maintain their fealty to the Eepublican 
partj , were willing to sacrifice that allegi- 
ance if they could secure protection and 
improve conditions for the race. Had the 
leaders of Southern opinion met these 
overtures, even part of the way, much of 
the friction and turbulence of subsequent 
years would have been avoided. But that 
there will be a breaking up of the political 
solidarity of the South, not on sentimental 
but on material lines, at no distant day 
all signs promise, and be its status what it 
may, the Negro will benefit by comming- 
ling with the respective parties in polit- 
ical fellowship. Laying down the ^^old 
gTudge" at the door of opportunity and 
entering, should the premises be habitable, 
he could "report progress and ask leave to 
sit again.'' 

It has been alleged to the discredit of 
the Negro that he too soon forgets an in- 
jury. Nevertheless as a virtue it should 
redound to his credit. He is swift to for- 
give and, if necessarj', apologize for the 
shortcomings of his adversary. But hu- 
man nature seldom appreciates forgive- 
ness, preceded as it is by censure, the sub- 
ject of which usually repels, and another 
melancliolv phase is often apparent, for the 



pricks of conscience for tliose Ave liave 
i\'ronged, we seek solace by hating. There 
are in both parties a fraction of saints, 
who, notwitlistanding his immense contri- 
bution by unrequited labor to the wealth 
of the nation whilst a slave; his fidelity 
and bravery in every war of the Republic, 
have for him neither care nor regard; de- 
nounce him as an incapable and a bad 
legacy. He should, nevertheless, be pa- 
tient, diligent, and hopeful, with apprecia- 
tion for his friends and for his enemies a 
consciuosness expressed in the Irishman's 
toast to the Englishman — 

^^Here's to you, as good as you are; 

And here's to me, as bad as I am; 
But as good as you are, 

And as bad as I am, 
I'm as good as you are. 

As bad as I am." 

Very ill considered is the opinion held 
and advocated by some, that he should de- 
fer or eschew politics — who say: "Let the 
Negro be deprived of this right of citizen- 
ship until lie learns how to exercise it with 
wisdom and discretion." As well say to 
the boy. Do not go into the water until 
you learn to swim! The highest type of 
ci^dlization is the evolution of mistakes. 
While education, business, and skilled la- 
bor should have the right of way and be 
primarily cherished, his right to vote and 
persistent desire to exercise it should never 


be abandoned, for lie Avill 3- et enjoy its full- 
est fruition all over this, our God-blessed 

Aniony the delegates I met at the South 
Carolina convention in 1871 were the Hon. 
AVilliam H. Grey, H. B. Eobinson, and J. H. 
Johnson, of Arkansas, prominent planters 
and leaders in that State. I was much im- 
pressed with the eloquence of Grey, and 
the practical ideas advanced h\ llobinson, 
the one charmed, the other convinced. 
Learning that I sought a desirable place 
to locate in the South, they were enthusi- 
astic in describing the advantages held 
out by the State of Arkansas. The com- 
parative infancy of Its development, its 
golden prospects, and fraternal amenities. 
Crossing the Arkansas River in a ferry- 
boat, in May, 1871, I arrived in Little Eock 
a stranger to every inhabitant. It was on 
a Sunday morning. The air refreshing, the 
sun not yet fervent, a cloudless sk}^ cano- 
pied the citj ; the carol of the canary and 
mocking bird from treetop and cage Avas 
all that entered a peaceful, restful quiet 
that bespoke a well-governed city. The 
chiming church bells that soon after sum- 
moned w^orshipers seemed to oid me wel- 
come. The high and humble, in their best 
attire, wended their way to the respective 
places of worship. 

Little Rock at that date, not un- 
like most Western cities in their in- 
fancy, and bid for immigration, was ex- 
tensively laid out, but thinly populated, 



having less than 12,000 inhabitants. From 
river front to Twelfth Street, on the south, 
and to Chester on the west, it was but 
sparsely settled. The streets were unim- 
proved, but the gradual rise from river 
front gave a natural drainage. Residences 
and gardens of the more prominent, on 
the outskirts, gave token of culture and re 
iinement. The noni de plume ^^City of 
Eoses'' seemed fittingly bestowed, for with 
trellis or encircling Avitli shady bower, the 
stately doorway of the wealthy, or the 
cabin of the lowly could be seen the rose, 
the honeysuckle, or other verdure of per- 
fume and beauty, imparting a grateful fra- 
grance, while ^^every prospect pleases.''' 
My first impressions have not been less- 
ened by lapse of time; generous nature has 
enabled human appliance to make Little 
Kock an ideal city. 

As knowledge of the local status of 
a State, as well as common law, 
must precede admission to the bar, I 
applied and was kindly permitted to en- 
ter the law office of Benjamin Barnes, 
at that time the only building on the 
square now occupied by the postoffice and 
the AUis Block. In this for preparatory 
reading I was very fortunate. I not only 
found an extensive law library, but the 
kindness and special interest shown by 
Sidney M. Barnes was of incalculable ben- 
efit. Mr. Barnes was an able jurist, one 
of nature's noblemen, genial, generous, 
and patriotic. A wealthy slaveholder in 



Kentucky, Avhen the note of civil war was 
sounded, called together his slaves, gave 
them their freedom, and at an early date 
had them enrolled in the Federal army, 
and went forth himself to fight for the 
Union. James K. Barnes, his son, now a 
prominent citizen of Fort Smith, and the 
able United States Attorney for the AVest- 
ern district of Arkansas, and whose fellow- 
ship and kindness has extended through 
all my political career in Arkansas, is ^^a 
worthy son of a noble sire,'' having courage 
of conviction and eloquence in their enun- 
ciation. Among the j^oung men then prac- 
ticing law was Lloyd G. Wheeler, a gradu- 
ate from a law school in Chicago, popular 
and an able lawjer, Avith considerable 
practice. In 1872 Ave joined, under the firm 
name of Wheeler & Gibbs, opening an of- 
fice in the Old Bank Building, corner Cen- 
ter and Markam Streets. 

It is not withou^t considerable trepi- 
dation that an infant limb of the 
law shies his castor into the ring, 
puts up his shingle announcing that A, 
B, or O is an ^^^.ttorney and Counsellor 
at Law.'' His cerebral column stiffens as. 
from day to day, he meets members of the 
bar, who congratulate him upon his ad- 
vent, and feels his importance as he waits 
from d^j to day for the visit of his first 
client, but collapses when he arrives and 
with ghostly dread salutes him and pre 
pares to listen with a disturbed sense of 
an awful responsibility he is about to un- 


Present Register of the Treasury, 
liorii in Georgin — A (iradnate of Howard Univorsitj' — Appointed by President 
McKinley to tlie Above Position. 



dertake. For, side by side with his client's 
statements there seem to appear iu stately 
majesty all the adjuncts of the huv: First, 
the inquisitive glance of the judge, like a 
judicial searchlight, scans him as he rises 
to defend Mr. Only Borrow, charged with 
larceny. Will he be able to think on his 
feet at the bar as he did in his chair in 
his office? Will he succeed or fail in stat- 
ing his case, with eye and ear of every vet- 
eran of the bar intent on his first utter- 
ance? How about the jur} , that unknown 
quantity of capricious predilections? Will 
they give him attention, or Avill their eyes 
find a more congenial resting place? Un- 
bidden, the panorama insists on promi- 
nence. He attempts the most nonchalant 
air, tells Mr. B. to proceed and state his 
case. This was not the first time that he 
had been requested to perform this incip- 
ient step of the law's demand, and he does 
it with such astuteness and flippancy, and 
how he had been wronged and persecuted 
by the plaintiff, that tears, unbidden, are 
ready to glisten in your eyes. Injured in- 
nocence and your sworn duty to our pro- 
fession inspire courage and induce you to 
take his case. Later on the tyro will have 
learned that it was highly probable that 
Mr. B. would not have called on him but 
for the fact that he was not only out of 
cash, but out of credit with able and ex- 
perienced practitioners. 

At the time of my examination for 
entry to the bar by the committee, 

(9) ^ 



of wliicli William G. Whijjple was 
one^ I was instructed that the most im 
portant acquisition for a member of the 
bar was ability to secure his fee. Ilavinj^ 
noted all the points of defence for his hon- 
esty, the last, but not the least matter to 
be considered was the fee, resulting in an 
excl)ange of promises and his departure. 
Wlien the case was called, for reasons not 
divulged, the plaintiff failed to appear. Mr. 
BorroAv was acquitted; I won my case and 
am still wooing my fee. The study of the 
law is not solely of advantage to those who 
intend adopting it as a profession, for its 
fundamental principles are intemvoven 
with the best needs of mankind in all his 
undertakings, making it of value to the 
preacher or laymen, the merchant or poli- 
tician. For the young man intending the 
pursuit of the latter it is quite indisp(Mi- 
sable. The condition in the South for a 
quarter of a century giving opportunity for 
colored men to engage in the professions 
has not been neglected. In each of the 
States there are physicians and lawyers 
practicing with more or less success. With 
equality of standing as to culture, ability 
and devotion, the doctor has had the ad- 
vantage for a growing and lucrative prac- 
tice. This can be accounted for partly on 
account of the private administrations of 
the one and the public career of the other. 
The physicians has seldom contact with his 
professional brother in white and escapes 
much of the difficulty that lies in wait for 
tlie colored disciple of Blackstone. 



During my practice I found the judges 
eminently fair in summing up the evidence 
produced, noting the points and impar- 
tially charging the jurors, who were also 
fair when plaintiff and defendant were of 
the same race, but who, alas, too often, 
when the case had been argued by, or the 
issue Avas between the representatives of 
the two races, bowed to the prevailing bias 
in their verdict. Bishop, in his introduc- 
tion to his ^^Criminal Law,'' has fittingly 
said: ^^The responsibilities which devolve 
on judicial tribunals are admitted. But a 
judge sitting in court is under no higher 
obligation to cast aside personal motives 
-and his likes and dislikes of the parties liti- 
gant, and to spurn the bribe if proffered 
than any other official person acting under 
a jurisdiction to enforce laws not judicial. 
Happy will be the day Avhen public virtue 
*t?xists otherwise than in name.'- It often 
liappens with cases commanding liberal 
fees and where the litigant has high re- 
gard for the legal learning and ability of 
the colored lawA'er, yet conscious of this 
hindrance to a successful issue of his case, 
Terj naturally goes elsewhere for legal as- 
sistance. Hence, as an advocate not hav- 
ing inducement for continued research and 
opportunity for application of the more in- 
tricate elements of the law, confined to 
petty cases with corresponding fee, he is 
handicapped in his effort to attain emi- 
nence as a jurist. It has been said that 
great men create circumstances. But cir- 



cumstances unavoidably produce great 
men. Henry Drummond is quoted as say- 
ing: "No matter what its possibilities may 
be, no matter what seeds of thought or vir- 
tue lie latent in its breast, until the ap- 
propriate environment presents itself, the 
correspondence is denied, the development 
discouraged, the most splendid possibili 
ties of life remain unrealized, and thought 
and virtue, genius and art, are dead.'' 

It should be the solemn and persistent 
duty of the race to contend for every right 
the Magna Chart a of the Ivepublic has grant- 
ed them, but it might assuage the pang of 
deprivation and stimulate opportunity did 
he fully know the stages of savagery, slav- 
ery, and oceans of blood through which the 
Anglo-Saxon passed to attain the exalted 
position he now occupies. Much of the 
jurisprudence we now have responding to 
and crystallizing the best needs of hu- 
manitj^ were garnered in this sanguine and 
checkered career. It is said that the law 
is a jealous mistress, demanding intense 
and entire devotion and unceasing wooing 
to succeed in winning her favor, or profit- 
ing by her decrees. Yet, for student or lay- 
man, the study is instructive and en- 
nobling. It is an epitome of ages of hu- 
man conduct, the products, the yearnings, 
and strivings of the human heart, as higher 
conceptions of man's relation to his fellow 
found echo or inscription in either the 
common or written law. Locality, nation- 
ality, race, sex, religion, or social manner 



may differ, but the accord of desire for 
civil liberty — the "torch lit up in the soul 
by the omnipotent hand of Deity itself" — 
is ever the same. Constitutional law "was 
not attained by sudden flight/' but it is the 
product of reform, with success and re- 
straint alternating through generations. 
It is the ripeness of a thousand years of 
ever-recurring tillage, blushing its scarlet 
rays of blood and conquest anteniatingjiis- 
toric "liunny M ^ade:^ — ■ ' /c^ 

It is well to occasionallv have such rem- 
iniscent thought; it makes us less pessimis- 
tic and gives life to strive and spirit and 
hope. AVe cannot unmake human nature, 
but can certainly improve conditions by 
self-denial, earnest thouoht, and wise ac- 




Previous to my resolve to settle in the 
South I had read and learned much of 
politics and politicians; the first as being 
environed by abnormal conditions unstable 
and disquieting — the class that had estab- 
lished and controlled the enonomy of the 
Southern States; had been deposed in the 
wage of sanguinary battle on many well 
contested fields — deposed by an opponent 
equallj' brave, and of unlimited resources; 
defeated, but unsubdued in the strength of 
conviction in the rightfulness of their 
cause. A submission of the hand but not 
of the heart. New constitutions granting 
all born beneath the flag equality of citi- 
zenship and laws in unison adopted, and 
new officers alien to local feeling were the 

It is unnecessary here to remark that if 
a succession of love feasts had been an- 
ticipated, they had been indefinitely post- 

For the officers of the new system were 
by their whilom predecessors ordered to 
go ^^nor stand upon the order of their go- 
ing,'' the bullet at times conveying the 
oriler. Assassinations, lynchings, and re- 



prisals by both parties to the feud were of 
daily occurrence. The future for life, lib- 
erty, and pursuit of happiness in busy city 
or sylvan grove, v^as not alluring. My sub- 
sequent career makes it necessary for me 
to arise to explain. Taking at the time a 
calm survey of the situation, an addition to 
the column of martyrs seemed to me un- 
necessary. I believed in the principles of 
the Kepublican party and as a private I 
was willing to vote, work, and be slightly 
crippled; but had not reached the bleeding 
and dying point. With such conclusions I 
resolved to come, and confine myself 
to the pursuit of my profession and give 
politics a ^^terrible letting alone.'' Oh, if 
abandoned resolutions were a marketable 
commodity, Avhat emporium sufficiently ca- 
pacious and who competent to classify! 

The organization of the Republican party 
('f Arkansas was on the eve of disruption. 
Its headquarters Avere in the building and 
over the law office of Benjamin & Barnes, 
with whom I was reading. Violent dis- 
putes as to party policy, leadership, and 
the distribution of the plums of office 
were of frequent occurrence. I very dis- 
tinctly remember the day when the cli- 
max was reached and "the parting of the 
ways'' determined. The adherents of Sen- 
ator Clayton and the State administration 
on the one part, and Joseph Brooks and 
his followers on the other, coming down 
the stairs^ — some with compressed lip and 
flashing eye, others as petulent as the chil 



dren who sav: ^^I don't want to play in 
TOTir yard; I don^t like you any more/' It 
was the beginning of the overt act that ex- 
tinguished Republican rule in Arkansas. 
The factions led by Powell Clayton and 
Joseph Brooks, respectively, were known 
as the ^^Minstrels'' and ^^Brindle Tails." 

Incongruity, being the prevailing force, 
possibly accounted for the contrary char- 
acter of the names, for there was little 
euphony in the minstrelsy of the one or a 
monopoly of brindle appearance in the 
other, for each faction's contingent, were 
about equally spotted with the sons of 
Ham. My friends, Benjamin & Barnes, 
were prominent as Brindles, and I, being 
to an extent a novice in the politics of the 
State, in a position to hear much of the 
wickedness of the Minstrels and but little 
of the ''piper's lay-' in his own behalf, 
fidelity to my friends, appalled at the al- 
leged infamy of the other fellows, sus- 
ceptible to encomiums which tlattered am- 
bition, I became a Brindle, and an active 
politiciau minus a lawyer. 

In 1873 I was appointed County Attor- 
ney for Pulaski, and after a few 
months' service resigned to assume the 
office of Municipal Jvulge of the City 
of Little Rock, to which I had been 
elected. I highly appreciated this, as ex- 
ceedingly complimentary from a popula- 
tion of 16,000, a large majority of which 
Avere not of my race. I entered upon and 
performed the duties of the office ufitil 



some time after the culmination of the 
Brooks and Baxter war in the State. It 
having been announced that I was the first 
of my race elected to such an office in the 
United States, it was not without trepida- 
tion that I assumed the duties that the 
confidence of my fellow citizens had im- 
posed upon me for the novelty of such an 
administration attracted attention. 
. A judge who has to deal with and inflict 
penalties for violation of law consequent 
upon the frailties and vices of mankind en- 
counters much to soften or harden his hu- 
manity, which may have remained normal 
but for such contact. His sworn duty to ad- 
minister the law as he finds it often con- 
flicts with a sense of justice implanted in 
the human soul, of which the law, imper- 
fect man has devised is often the imper- 
fect vehicle for his guidance; but never- 
theless to which his allegiance must be 
paramount, even when attempting to tem- 
per justice Avith mercy. 

Nowhere is so plainly presented as 
n^any of the various liohts and shad- 
ows of human character. Love and 
faithlessness, sincerity and deceit, no- 
bility and dishonor,, kindness and in- 
gratitude, morality and vice — all the vir- 
tues and their antitheses take their place 
at the bar of the court of justice and await 
the verdict, while truth and deception 
strive for conquest; an honest son of toil 
arrested in a den of infamy whither he has 
been decoyed, and his week's earnings 



tiklied; bis wife in tears before you; tbe 
clasb of jjrejudice wben tbe parties liti- 
gant were of opposite races; tbe favorable 
expectation of tbe ricb, prominent, and in- 
fluential wben confronted by tbe poor and 
loAvly; bumble and conscientious innocence 
appalled wben rigid law Avould mulct tbem 
in tine and imprisonment; tbe bigb and 
tbe bauglity incensed at discbarge of tbe 
obscure and indigent. In cases sligbt, 
wliere tbe justice of leniencj' was apparent 
and yet tbe mandates of tbe law had to 
be enforced, 1 would pronounce tbe pen- 
alty and suspend tbe tine during good be- 
bavior. But if tbe culprit returned, mercy 
was absent. 

An incident in relation to tbe suspen- 
sion of tbe tine will sbow tbat I did to 
otbers as I would bave otbers do to me: 
A member of tbe court was at times irri- 
table and vexations. During a session tbere 
was a misunderstanding, wbicb, upon 
adjournment, growing in intensity, resulted 
in my committing an assault. Tbe cbasm, 
liowever, was soon bridged witli mutual 
pledges. Nevertheless I requested tbe 
cbief of police to bave charge entered upon 
docket, to come up at next session of court, 
whereupon the judge, after expressing re- 
gret that the law had been violated, fined 
Citizen Gibbs and suspended the fine dur 
ing good behavior, and, as tbe citizen was 
not again arraigned, it may be presumed 
that his conduct was reasonably good, how- 
ever doubtful may be the presumption. 



I was fortunate in having the confidence 
of the community, always an important ad- 
junct to the bench, for it is not alw ays that 
the executor of the law^ has to deal with 
the humble of no repute. An old resident, 
wealthy and prominent, Avas arrested and 
was to appear before me for trial. Dur- 
ing the interim it was several times sug- 
gested to me in a friendly way that I had 
better give the case a letting alone by dis- 
missal, as it would probably be personally 
dangerous to enforce the law^, as he was 
known to be impulsive and at times vio- 
lent. I heard the case, which had aggra- 
vated features, together Avith resisting and 
assaulting an officer, and imposed the high- 
est penalty provided by law. Those who 
had thought that such action would give 
offence little knew the man. It being the 
last case on the docket for the day, de- 
scending from the bench and passing, I 
saluted him, which he pleasantly returned, 
Avithout a murmur as to the justice of the 
fine. Subsequenth , on several occasions, 
he placed me under obligations to him for 
faA ors. Personally, insignificant as I may 
have been to him, he recognized in me for 
the time being a custodian of the majesty 
of the laAv, Avhich he kneAV he had violated. 
When it shall happen as a rule and not as 
the exception that men wall esteem, ap- 
plaud and sustain the honest administra- 
tion of the law, irrespective of the admin- 
istrator, a great step will have been taken 
tOAA' ard a better conservation of conj^titu- 



tional liberty. In Arkansas the political 
cauldron continued to boil. In Powell 
Clayton were strongh' marked the ele- 
ments of leadership, fidelity to friends, ora- 
torical power, honest}' of purpose, courage 
of conyiction, with unflinching determina- 
tion to enforce them. The late Joseph 
Brooks, an ex-minister of the Methodist 
Church, and who secularized as a politi- 
cian, was an orator to be reckoned with. 
Sincere, scathing, and impressiye, his fol- 
lowing was large and deyoted. Senator 
Clayton, the present Ambassador to Mex- 
ico, has outliyed the political bitterness 
that so long assailed him, and was lately 
guest of reception and banquet giyen him 
and largely attended hj Democrats, chiefly 
his political opponents. 

The diyided Eepublicans held their State 
conyention in 1872. The Clayton faction 
{the Minstrels) had for their nominee 
Elisha Baxter, a North Carolinian by birth, 
and hence to the Southern manor born. 
This, is was premised, would bring 
strength to the ticket. Joseph Brooks was 
the nominee of the Brindle wing of the 
party, and a battle royal was on. Although 
a minority of Democrats respectable in 
number joined the Brooks faction, the ma- 
jority stood off with wish for "plague on 
both your houses,'' and awaited the issue. 
It was in my. first of twenty-eight years of 
recurrent canyassing. Many districts of 
the State at that time being destitute of 
contact by railroads, made wagon .and 
buggy trayel a necessity. 

Embassador to Mexico. 

Groveriior of Arkansns— Unit»Hl State? Senator— !i one.^t and Fearless, with 
Public and Private Life Beyond Ueproacli. 



After nominations were made for the va- 
rious State officers in convention, appoint- 
ments were made and printed notices 
posted and read at church and schoolhouse 
neigliborhoods, that there Avould be 
^^speaking'' at stated points. 

The speakers, with teams and literature 
and other ammunition of political warfare 
known and "spiritually'' relished by the 
faithful, would start at early morn from 
their respective headquarters on a tour of 
one or two hundred miles^ filling ten or 
twenty appointments. Good judgment was 
necessary in the personal and peculiar fit- 
ness of the advocate. For he that could 
by historic illustration and gems of logic 
carry conviction in a cultured city would 
be "wasting his sweetness on the desert 
air'' in the rural surroundings of the 
cabins of the lowly. I have heard a point 
most crudeh' stated, followed by an appo- 
site illustrative anecdote, by a plantation 
orator silence the more j)rofuse cultured 
and eloquent opponent. 

As he was still at his lesson oh the 
duties and responsibilities of citizenship, 
it Avas a study worthy the pencil of a Ho- 
garth to watch the play of lineament of 
feature, while gleaning high ideals of ' 
citizenship and civil libertj' amid the clash 
of debate of political opponents; cheerful 
acquiescence, cloudy doubt, hilarious be-; 
lief, intricate perplexity, and want of com- 
prehension h\ turns impressed the counte- 


nance. But truBtfiil in the »heet anchor 
of liberty, they were worthy students, who 
strove to merit the great benignity. Can- 
vassing was not witliout its humorous 
phases during the perilous times of recon- 
struction. The meetings, often in the 
woods adjoining church or schoolhouse, 
were generally at a late hour, the men hav- 
ing to care for their stock, get supper, and 
come often several miles; hence it was not 
unusual for proceedings to be at their 
height at midnight. I Avas at such a gath- 
ering in the lower part of the State, wliere 
Jack Agery, a noted plantation orator, was 
holding forth, denouncing the Democracy 
and rallying the faithful, lie was a man 
of great natural ability and bristling witli 
pithy anecdote. From a rude platform half 
a dozen candles flickered a weird and un- 
steady glare. Agerj^ as a spellbinder was 
at his best, when a hushed Avhisper, grow- 
ing into a general alarm, announced that 
members of the Ku Klux, an organization 
noted for tlie assassination of Kepublicans. 
were coming. Agery, a born leader, in 
commanding tones, told the meeting to be 
fs;eated and do as he bid them. The Ku 
Klux, disguised and pistol belted, very 
f^oon appeared, but not before Agery had 
given out, and they were singing with fer 
vor that good old hymn "Amazing Grace, 
How Sweet It Sounds to Save a Wretch 
Like Me.-' The visitors stood till the verse 
w^as ended, when Agery, self -controlled, 
called on Brother Primus to next lead in 



Brother P. was soon hammering the 
bench and calling on the Lord to come on 
His ^Svhite horse, and to come this very 
minute.'' "Oh/^ said the chief of the night 
riders, ^^this is only a nigger prayer meet- 
ing. Come, let us go.'' Scouts were sent 
out and kept out to see that "dis- 
tance lent enchantment to the view/' 
and the political feature of the meeting was 

The Negro is not without many of the 
prominent characteristics of the successful 
politician. He is aggressive, conserva- 
tive, and astute, as occasion demands. 
Of the latter trait Hon. John Al- 
len, ex-member of Congress from Mis- 
sissippi, and said to have been the 
prince of story tellers, at his own ex- 
pense gives this amusing incident. It was 
on the occasion of the Carmack-Patterson 
contested election case. In beginning his 
speech he called attention to Mr. Patter- 
son's remarks. ^'Did any of you,'' he said, 
"ever hear anyone pronounce a more beau- 
tiful eulogy on himself than that just pro- 
nounced by Josiah Patterson^? In listening 
to it I was reminded of what my friend 
Jake Cummings once said about me. It 
was in the great campaign of 1884. The 
Cleveland-Hendricks- Allen Club at Tupelo 
had a meeting, and Mr. Taylor and Mr. An- 
derson spoke to the club that night. As 
I chanced to be at home from my cam- 
paigning, I attended the club meeting. 
After the regular speakers I was called 



for and submitted some remarks about my- 
self and my campaign. After I had 
spoken the crowd called for Jake Cum- 
mings, a long, black, slick old Negro car- 
penter, who lives in Tupelo. Jake's speech 
ran about this way: ^^Well, gentlemen, it's 
gettin' kinder late now. I don't know as 
it's necessary for me to say anything. 
You's heerd Mister Taylor and Mister Al- 
len on the general politics of the day. 
Thej^^s dun told you what sort of man 
Blaine is, and what sort of a man Oleve- 
land is. It don't look- to me like no honest 
man ought to have trouble in picking out 
the fittinest man of them two. And then 
you's heerd Mister Allen on hisself , and he 
has ricommended hisself so much highel^ 
than any the rest of us kin ricommend him 
it ain't worth while for me to say nuthin^ 
about him.'^ ^ ^ 




There is at present a lowering cloud on 
prospect of righteous rule in many of the 
Southern States, but the relative rights 
and resi)onsibilities of equitable govern- 
nientj enunciated from desk in church, 
schoolhouse, or from stump in grove by 
the Eepublicans during and since recon- 
struction, have been an education to the 
poor whites, hitherto ignorant and in com- 
plete political thraldom to the landed 
class, and to the freedman a new gospel, 
whose conception was necessarily limited 
to his rights as a newly-fledged citizen. 
Nevertheless, they were the live kernels of 
equality before the law, that still ^4iave 
their silent undergrowth,'' inducing a man- 
hood and patriotism that is now and will 
more and more blossom with national 
blessing. Friends regretfully and foes de- 
spairingly sometimes speak of the tardi- 
ness of his progress. He will compare fa- 
vorably, however, for all history records 
that it is slowly, through the crucible of 
physical and mental toiling, that races 
pass to an elevated status. For of serfs 
he was not the least in his appreciation of 

Sir Walter Scott, in his note on E]nglish 
history during the reign of George ITT, of 




the ^^colliers and salters, who were not Ne 
groes/' says: ^^The persons engaged in 
these occupations were at the time bonds- 
men, and in cas(^ tliey left the ground of 
the farms to which they belonged, and as 
pertaining to which their services were 
bought and sold, they were liable to be 
brouglit back by a summary process. The 
existence of this species of shivery being 
thought irreconcikible with the spirit of 
liberty, the ^^colliers and salters were de- 
clared free, and put on the same footing 
with other servants by the act of George 
III. But they were so far from desiring 
or prizing the blessing conferred on them 
that tliey esteemed the interest taken in 
their freedom to be a mere decree on the 
part of the proprietors to get rid of what 
they called ^4iead or harigold money'' pay- 
able to them when a female of their num- 
ber, hj bearing a child, made an addition 
to the live stock of their master's prop- 

If the fitness for liberty is the meas- 
ure of persecution sustained in an effort 
for its enjoyment, of that disciplinary proc- 
ess the freedmen have not been deprived, 
for ever since his maiden attempt to exer- 
cise the right of an American citizen he has 
encountered intense opposition and phys- 
ical outrage, all of which has been met 
by non-resistance and manly appeal to the 
American conscience for protection; first 
from the "Ku Klux band'' of murderers, 
and subsequently against the vicious prac- 



tices to deprive him of his political rights, 
should establish his claim. Nevertheless, 
after a third of a century of successful en- 
ileavor, educationally^ and materially, ef- 
forts are being made in Southern States for 
his disfranchisement and the curtailment 
of his education. On this attempt George 
C. Lormer, a noted divine and v^riter, in a 
late article in ^^The Watchman,'^ under 
the head of ^^The Educational Solution of 
Kace Problems," has this to saj^: 

^^But may it not be that this reactionary 
movement rather expresses a fear of edu- 
cation than a serious doubt of its power? 
We must remember that conditions are pe- 
culiar in the South, and, in some quarters, 
there exists a not unnatural apprehension 
that Negro supremacy may prevail. To 
avert this political catastrophe, extraordi- 
nary measures have been adopted. To the 
difficulties that beset the Southern people 
we cannot be indifferent, and neither 
should we assume that we would act very 
differently, were we similarly situated. But 
we think, in view of all the circumstances, 
that their position on this subject exposes 
them to the suspicion that it is the success 
of education they fear, and not its failure. 
This apparent misgiving reasonably 
awakens distrust in the soundness of their 

It is assumed by many who oppose the 
educational solution that inferior races are 
unassimilable in their nature to the higher 
civilization. Proof is sought for in the al- 



leged decadence or disappearance of the 
Turanian people of Europe, the natives of 
South America, and the West India Isl- 
ands. But what is this civilization that is 
so fatal in its operation? What do we 
mean by the term? What is that exalted 
something before which African and 
Asiatic must perish? Does it consist in 
armies, machinery, saloons, breweries, rail- 
ways, steamboats, and certain commercial 
methods that are fatal to truth and hon- 
est}^ Baron Russell, Lord Chief Justice of 
England, included none of these in his con- 
ception of its character. He is recorded 
as saying: ^^It's true, signs are thoughts 
for the poor and suffering, chivalrous re- 
gard and respect for women, the frank rec- 
ognition of human brotherhood, irrespec- 
tive of race or color, or nation or religion; 
the narrowing of the domain of mere force 
as a governing factor in the world, the love 
of ordered freedom, abhorrence of what is 
mean and cruel and vile, ceaseless devotion 
to the claims of justice. Civilization in its 
true, its highest sense, must make for 

Previous to the National Convention 
which nominated General Grant for a sec- 
ond term, there had been held a conference 
of colored leaders, who assembled at New 
Orleans to elicit opinion and divine the 
I^robable course of the colored delegates at 
that convention. It was there I first met 
that faithful, able, and invincible cham- 
pion of the race. Governor P. B. S. Pinch- 

United States Senator^^,,,.--^'^''^ t 

Bora May, 1837— Educated at tSllmon High School, Ciiicinniati. Ohic— -CaptAiu Co. 
A, 2d Ke^imeiit, Louisiana Volunteei-8 — Member of Constitutional 
Convention of Lonisiana-^State Senator — Lieuten:uit-Gover- 
noi'— Editor and Lawyer— Able as a Statesman, 
Eloquent as an Advocate, and Unflin-ch- 
ing in Defense of Equal Justice. 



back and Captain James LgwIkS, my fellow- 
member of the "Old Guard/^ who, true in 
peace as war, never surrendered. The 
conference, though not great numerically, 
was strong in its mental calibre and rep- 
resentative character, with Douglas, 
Langston, Cunej, and others who have 
since passed to the great beyond. The col- 
ored office holders at Washington under 
Grant were much in evidence and nat- 
urally eager for his endorsement. 

There was much discussion, and while 
an ardent advocate for Brooks, I could not 
follow his supporters — the Brindle wing of 
the part}^ in my State — in their choice of 
Horace Greely for President. My slogan 
in the State canvass had been Grant for 
President and Brooks for Governor. The 
wisdom of the conference determined upon 
a non-committal polic3\ It was thought 
unwise, in our peculiar condition, to hasten 
to proclaim in advance of the gathered 
wisdom of such an august body as a Na- 
tional Convention. Hence, the conference 
concluded by setting forth by resolutions, 
grievances, and a reaffirmation of fealty to 
the Kepublican party. 

The result of the State election in 
Arkansas in 1872 was that Brooks 
got the votes and Baxter the office, 
whereupon a contest was inaugurated, ter- 
minating in civil war. The Baxter, or Min- 
strel, wing of the party, with the view of 
spiking the guns of the Brindles, had, in 
their overtures to the Democrats during 



the campaign and in their platform at the 
nominating convention declared in favor 
of enfranchising the Confederates that 
took part in the war against the Union. 
Baxter's movement in that direction and 
his apjjointment of Democrats to office cre- 
ated discontent in both wings of the Ee- 
publican partj', leading to their union and 
determined steps for his removal and the 
seating of Brooks, who, both factions now 
declared, was elected. The doctrine of 
estoppel ^^cutting no figure'' with the Bax- 
ter contingent. A writ of ouster was ob- 
tained from Judge Vicoff, of the Circuit 
Court, which Sheriff Oliver, accompanied 
bv Joseph Brooks, J. L. Hodges, General 
Catterson, and one or two others, including 
the writer, proceeding to the State House 
and mad(^ service. 

No notice of such action having pre- 
ceded, Governor Baxter . was ill-pre- 
])ared for the anuoiuicement. After a 
short parley with his private secri^tary, 
(leneral McCanany, escorted by the Sheriff 
and General Catterson down the stairway, 
they were met by Hon. J. N. Smithea, the 
able editor of the ^^\rkansas Gazette.'' 
Leaving the building, they Avent direct to 
the Antony Houf^e, on East Markam Street. 
Word was sent to A. H. Garland, U. B. 
Eose, E. C. Newton, and other prominent 
Democrats, who soon joined him in con- 
sultation. Governor Baxter immediately 
notified President Grant of the situation 
and sent instructions to the custodian of 



State arms at the U. S. Arsenal to honor 
none but his order for delivery. Joseph 
lirooks was sworn in, and the two Gov- 
ernors made immediate preparations for 
siege and defence. Main Street south from 
the river to the boundary line of the city, 
was the dividing line of the two factions, 
Governor Baxter to the east on Markam 
Street, and Governor Brooks, at the An- 
tonj House, to west; at the State House 
established their respective quarers. 

A condition of unrest had pervaded the 
State for several months preceding 
this event, and when the sh)gan ot 
war Ava.s sounded the respective ad- 
herents b}' hundreds from all over 
the State hastened to the capital. On 
the morning following the. ^^coup d'etat" 
a report reached the State House that a 
conipanj^ of colored men, commanded by 
Gen. King White, from Pine Bluff, had 
arrived and was quartered on Eock Street. 
On the assumption that the men were mis- 
informed as to the merits of the quarrel, 
it was proposed that they be intervicAved. 
To do that Avas to cross the line and enter 
the enemy's territory. It Avas not unlike 
the query of the rats in the fable, Who 
shall bell the cat? I was solicited, and, 
learning I had friends in the comjDany, con- 
sented to go. Going south on Center Street 
to cross the line hy a circuitous route, I 
reached Eock Street, and nearly the ren-' 
dezvous. But the ^^best laid plans of men' 
and mice oft gang a glee.'' The emissary 



had been discovered and reported. Ap- 
proaching me at a rapid rate, mounted on a 
charger whicli seemed to me the largest, 
with an artillery of pistols peeping from 
holsters, rode General George L. Bashman, 
of the Baxter forces. Beining up his steed 
he said, not unkindly: Judge Gibbs, I am 
instructed to order you to leave the lines 
immediatel} , or subject yourself to arrest.'' 
As formerly intimated, and not unlike Ar- 
temus Ward, 1 Avas willing that all my 
wife's relatives might participate in the 
glories and mishaps of war. Hence I 
bowed a submissive acquiescence and re- 
turned. I appreciated the amity ex^^ressed 
in the manner and delivery of the order — 
an amity of which 1 have been the recipient 
from my political opponents during the 
thirty years of my domocile in Arkansas. 

General Bose, who held command at the 
Arsenal, and had received instructions 
from Washington to keep peace pending 
a settlement of the controversy, with a de 
tail of soldiers, had erected a barricade op- 
posite the City Hall on Markam Street and 
placed a piece of artillery on Louisiana 
Street, pointing to the river. In the after- 
noon of their arrival. General White's 
troops, headed by a brass band, marched 
on Markam Street to the Antony House. 
While so doing a report became current 
that they were i3reparing to attack the 
State House. General Bose attempted to 
investigate and, with his orderly, rode rap- 
idly on Markam Street, across Main, to 



ward the Antony House. At the moment a 
shot, increasing into volleys, from combat- 
ants on either side, who primarily were 
the aggresi^ors was never known. It re- 
sulted in several casualties. Colonel Shall 
was killed in the Antony House, and others 
within the precincts of the City Hall and 
Metropolitan Hotel. Markam Street sud- 
denly assumed a Sundaj-like appearance, 
the Brooksites seeking safet}-^ in the State 
House and the Baxterites in the Antony. 
The feet of General White's troops fought 
bravely. Three hours later it was an- 
nounced that they had made the fifty miles 
to Pine Blulf without a break, windless, 
but happy. Each faction was deficient in 
arms to equip their adherents. A company 
of cadets from St. John's College had'l3een ; 
placed at the service of Baxter. 

At the State University at Fayettesville 
were stored rifles and ammunition, the prop- 
erty of the State. Thither Col. A. S. Fowler, 
of the Brooks forces, proceeded, and, witli 
courage and diplomacy, succeeded in ob- 
taining and placing a supply on a flat boat, 
and commenced his trip down the river. In- 
formation of this movement having 
reached the Antony House, the river 
steamer Hallie, with a detachment of Bax- 
ter forces, was dispatched up the river to 
intercept, and succeeded in passing the 
State House without interference. The 
circuitous character of the river enabled a 
company from the State House, by quick 
march, to overhaul it at a bend of the river. 



a fusillade of whose rifle shots killed the 
captain, wounded several others, and dis- 
abled the steamer, which was captured and 
brought back to the State House. A rest- 
less quiet then ensued, occasionally broken 
by random shots. 

In the meantime Governor Baxter had 
called an extraordinary session of his legis- 
lative adherents, vacancies of recalcitrant 
liepublicans filled, the Brooks government 
denounced, and an api)eal to the President 
for support. All the records and a])purte- 
nances of the Secretarj^ of State's office, in- 
cluding the great seal of the State, were in 
possession of Brooks at the State House. 
Information that a duplicate had been 
made in St. Louis and was en route to the 
Antony House Avas received, Avhereupon 
General I). P. T^pham made application for 
a searc^h warrant to intercept it, a copy of 
which is as follows: 

^^I, D. P. Upham, do solemnly swear 
that one Elisha Baxter nud his co- 
conspirators hav(^ oideied and caused 
to be. made, as I am informed, a 
counterfeit of the great seal of the State 
of Arkansas, and that the same is now or 
soon will be in the express office of the 
city of Little Rock, as I am informed, and 
that the same is intended for the purpose 
of defrauding, counterfeiting, and forging 
the great seal of the State of Arkansas by 
the said Elisha Baxter and his co-conspir- 
ators, and to use the same for illegal and 
fraudulent purposes, against the peace and 



dignity of the State of Arkansas, and I ask 
that a search warrant may issue forthwith, 
according to law, to search for and seize 
said counterfeit seal, wlierever or in whom- 
soever possession it may be found. 

^^(Signed.) D. P. UPHAM. 

"Subscribed and sworn to before me tliis 
1st day of May, 1874. M. W. GIBBS, 

"City Judge.'' 

The Avarrant was duly served and return 
made, Avith the seal. Baxter, having now 
ignored the men Avho i)laced him in power, 
called around liim as supporters and ad- 
visers the brain and strengtli of the Demo- 
cratic party. Meanwhile each party had 
representatives in Washington, urging 
their claims for recognition. As a party, 
the Kepiiblicans were at a disadvantage. 
When Brooks, being elected, was contest- 
ing Baxter's right to tlie Governorship, 
Baxter was supported by tlie leading and 
most prominent republicans of the State, 
who swore "by all the gods at once" that 
he and not Brooks Avas elected; but now 
they SAvore at once at all opposing gods, 
who said that Baxter Avas. 

A committee of Brooks men, of Avhom 
tlie writer Avas one, was sent to 
AVashington to present the claims and 
<onditions to the President. When 
the train, en route, stopped at Alexan- 
dria a gentleman came hurriedly in and, 
accosting another, said: "What do you 
think? Grant has recognized Baxter." I 



did not learn the thought or hear the re- 
sponse, being possessed immediately by a 
feeling not unlike the boy whose ^^piece of 
bread and butter falls with the butter side 
down.'' We jjursued our way to Washing- 
ton to find the report true. We called at 
the White House several times, but the 
engagements of the President prevented 
an interview. Late of an afternoon, sitting 
in my room on I Street, I saw the Presi- 
dent approaching slowlj^ and alone. I put 
on mj hat, and was soon with him, and, 
with becoming salute, addressed him. 
-General Grant, who was ever accessible to 
the most humble, attentively^ listened, as 
we walked, to my brief statement of our 
case. He replied that his sj inpathies were 
with us, for he believed that Brooks was 
elected; but that his Attorney General had 
given an opinion that the people, through 
the expression of their last Legislature, 
had endorsed Baxter, and that he must ac- 

That this avowal was sincere was shown 
by a subsequent message to Congress 
on the subject, condemning the pro- 
cess by which the Democracy had vaulted 
into power. When the dispatch from 
Washington recognizing Baxter was re- 
ceived at the Antony House the faithful, 
while making the welkin ring, made im- 
mediate preparations to take undisturbed 
possession of the State House. The march 
of Governor Baxter and his adherents to 
the capital Avas made, as imposing as had 



his former exclusion been liumiliating. A 
band playing inspiring music not unlike 
^'See, the Conquering Hero Comes/' and 
stepping to the air came an array, led by 
General King White, on horseback, with 
tlags flj'ing, animated and exhilarated with 
all the pomp and circumstance of a victo- 
rious legion, entered and occupied the 
building which Brooks and his following, 
defeated and depressed, had vacated, in 
obedience to the President's mandate. The 
prospect for their rehabilitation seemed 
shadowy, but, with that hope said '^ta 
spring eternal in the human breast,'' they 
had resolved to carry their contest to Con- 

It nmj be properly said of Joseph 
Brooks, as of Charles II, ^^His fault — and 
no statesman can have a worse one — was 
that he never saw things as they really 
were. He had imagination and logic, but 
he was an idealist, and a theorizer, in 
which there might have been good if only 
his theories and ideals had not been out 
of relation with the hard duties of a day 
of storm." 

There was opportunity for him to have 
secured the approval of the Poland Com- 
mittee. But the tenacity of his ideal of 
no concession allowed it to pass. 




In 1874 a constitutional convention was 
called and a new constitution adopted. 
At the State convention of the Democratic 
party for the nomination of State officers 
Baxter was the favorite for re-election as 
Governor, and probably would have been 
the choice, had not the more astute poli- 
ticians put the United States senatorial 
^^bee in his bonnet/^ which induced a letter, 
fervid and patriotic, declining the nomina- 
tion. Baxter was confiding and honest, but 
not an adept in the wily ways of the politi- 
cian. Augustus H. Garland was elected 
Governor, and in tlie United States sena- 
torial race Baxter was ^^eft at the stand. 
It was then, as it oft happens, that — 

^^God and the soldier all men adore, 
In time of Avar, and not before^ 
When the war is over and all things 

God is forgot, and the soldier slighted.'' 

Augustus H. Garland was a Senator in 
the Confederate Congress in 1861, succeed- 
ing Baxter as Governor, then United 
States Senator from Arkansas, and sub- 
sequently a member of President Cleve- 


A learned jurist, broad and humane. A member of the Con- 
federate Congress — Governor of and United States Senator for 
Arkansas— A member of President Cleveland's Cabinet — Evidencing 
in every position, that it was a selection ''fit to be made." 



land's Cabinet, evidencing in every posi- 
tion that it was a selection ^^fit to be made" 
not only for his ability and attainments 
as a statesman, bnt for rngged honesty of 
pnrpose and broad linmanity as a man. 
Taking- the reins of government at the 
zenith of a successfnl revolution, when vio 
lence songht gratitication, desire rampant 
for prosecution and persecution. Governor 
Garland, by a conservative policy, soothed 
th(^ on(^ and disconraged the otlu^r — a pol- 
icy early annoHnc(Ml in his tirst proclama- 
tion, an extract of Avhich is as follows: 
''J^honld there be any indictments in the 
courts for pasC political offences, I would 
sugg(^st and advise^ their dismissal. Let 
people of all parties, racers and colors 
conn* and be Avelcomed to our State and 
encouraged to bring her up to a position 
of true greatness.'' His fri(uidship 1 highly 
(\>te(Mn(^d, and, beaming of his demise, 
could not but submit the following token: 
^^Tamatave, Madagascar, 
^^\pril 17, 1S99. 
^'Editor Little liock Gazette: 

^^Sitting in the Consulate, way down 
on the banks of the Indian Ocean, the Ga- 
zette comes to me laden with expressions of 
sorrow on the passing of my friend, ex- 
United States Attorney General A. H. Gar- 
land. Truly, ^a great man has fallen.' In 
him the nation has lost an eminent states- 
man and Arkansas a most distinguished 
citizen, celebrated for his intellectuality 



and valued services to the Commonwealth, 
I said ^my friend/ and 1 reiterate, in no 
platform sense of that term. Twenty -five 
year ago I was municipal judge of the 
city, at the time when the conflict for party 
ascendanc}^ was most intense. When pas- 
sion struggled for the mastery, as Gov- 
ernor, he was in reality to me a friend. 
During his residence at the capital I have 
never visited Washington without seeking 
and as promptly receiving his kindly greet- 
ing. On several occasions his services, 
eagerly given, were most helpful. He was 
not only mentally eminent, but morally 

^^Ever approachable, he Avas a manly 
man, with courage of conviction, and, while 
urging tliem with a zeal born of honest be- 
lief, had the inestimable faculty of win- 
ning adherents hj strength of presentation, 
blended with suavity of manner. He was 
conspicuous in this, that his broad soul ex- 
panded with tender and affectionate re- 
gard for the poor and humble. Reserved 
in manner, magnanimous and catholic in 
a spirit that embraced the Svorld as his 
country, and all mankind as his country- 
men.' So in the archives of memory I make 
haste to lay this small tribute to a departed 
friend, who still seems as ^one long loved 
and but for a season gone.' '' 

I was present, but not a delegate, at the 
convention that nominated General Grant 
for a second term, at the Academy of Mu- 
sic, in Philadelphia, in 1872. 



The proceedings, reported and pub- 
lished, of a National Convention are al- 
ways interesting, but lose much of the im- 
pression and force of actualitj' with w^hich 
an auditor and spectator is aifected. The 
gayety and magnetism of numbers, the 
^scintillations of brain in special advocacy, 
followed by tumultuous accord. The in- 
tensity, the anxiety depicted, while results 
far-reaching and momentous are pending, 
furnish a scene vivid and striking that can- 
not be pictured. Here is being formed the 
policy of a party which is to be subjected 
to the winnowing fan of acute and honest 
criticism, and by denunciation by opposite 
parties, striving to obtain the administra- 
tion of the Government, the flat of which 
and the selection of the standard-bearer 
constitute the claim for the suffrage of tlie 
people. They are the preparatory corner- 
stones of self-government, fashioned and 
waiting for the verdict of the nation. 

Committees on platform and resolutions 
are generally composed of the radical and 
conservative elements of a party, so that, 
Avliile the canvass is up and on, it shall 
have steered between ^^the rocks of too 
much danger and pale fear'' and reached 
the port of victory. Experience during the 
period since last it met may have had 
much to do with silence or brief mention 
of the heretofore darlina* shibboleth with 
which they were wont to inspire the faith- 
ful, rally the laggards, or capture converts. 
^^Consistency, thou art a jeweP' that daz- 



^^llADO^^' axd light. 

zles, confuses, but dotli not bewilder the 
ordinary politician, avIio can allow a for- 
mer policy noiseless and forsaken to sink 
into the maelstrom of neglected and un- 
requited love. Prolific in schemes is the 
procedure of a minority party, not the 
least is the selection of a standard-bearer, 
who has been the most sparse and reticent 
in utterance, hence a record the least as- 
sailable, that extracts from his opponents 
the exclamation of one in Holy Writ, ^^()h, 
that mine enemy had Avritten a book.'' 

Among the men who made mark at the 
convention above referred to was Oliver P. 
Morton, of Indiana, styled the ^"^War Gov- 
ernor,'- for the patriotism and alacrity 
which he summoned his State in response 
to the national call, caught up and fol- 
lowed by every loyal State during the Civil 
AYar. A continued invalid, with lower 
limbs paralyzed, with massive head and 
inspired brain, assisted by two servants to 
a chair to the front of the platform, he 
made the speech of the convention. An- 
other novel incident was the occupation 
of the platform of a National Convention 
by Afro-Americans. The Late Hon. Wil- 
liam H. Gray, the faithful and eloquent 
leader of the colored liepublicans of Ar- 
kansas, and the late Hon. R. B. Elliott, 
Congressman from South Carolina, were 
invited to speak. 

A few of their well-chosen words in ex- 
ordium were as follows: 

Mr. Gray said : '' Gentlemen of the Con- 



yentiou: For the first time, perhaps, in the 
history of the American people, there 
stands before you in a National Convention 
assembled, a rejjresentatiye of that op- 
pressed race that has lived among you for 
two hundred and fifty years; who, by the 
magnanimity of this great nation, lifted by 
the power of God and the hands of man 
from the degradation of slavery to the 
proud position of an American citizen.'^ 

Mr. Elliott said: ^^Gentlemen of the Con- 
vention: It is with great appreciation of 
the compliment paid mj State that I rise 
to respond to your invitation to address 
you. I stand here, gentlemen of the con- 
vention, together with my colleagues from 
the several States, as an illustration of an 
accomplished fact of American emancipa- 
tion, not only as an illustration of the man- 
agement of the American people, but as a 
living example of the justice of the Amer- 
ican people.'' 

The speeches of which the forego- 
ing are but a part of their introduc- 
tion, expressive of gratitude and fidelity, a 
conception of the needs of the hour, deliv- 
ered with an eloquence that charmed, 
elicited hearty response, the Academy 
echoing and re-echoing with the plaudits 
of the vast assembly. At each National 
Convention of the Republican party repre- 
sentatives of the race have shown not 
alone oratorical power, but an intelligent 
grasp of the political situation. At this 
period of General Grant's nomination, the 



nation's heart still jubilant with the suc- 
cess of the Federal arms; its conscience 
aAvakened by the dread ix^nalty paid by 
contributions from every loyal hearthstone 
for the subjugation of slavery, Avas now 
eager and active in providing that the Ne- 
gro Avho had been faithful in peace and 
heroic in war, should enjoy the rights of an 
American citizen. It was history repeating 
its(4f, for in England's history we read 
that it was J[(^nry at Ajincoui't who said: 
ho this day sheds his blood with me to- 
day shall be my brother; were he ne'er so 
vil(\, today shall gentle his condition.'' For 
the Civil War, as it matured, became no 
ordinary case of political contention; the 
soul of its suppression sprang from the 
most sacred impulses in the mind of man. 
It was response to the self-retort of Cain 
that came echoing down the ages, '^Am I 
my brother's keeper?'' Answer came in 
shot and shell. 

But as time receded from these historic 
e])()chs, engrossed more and more in na- 
tional development, mercantile aspira- 
tions, internal improvements, rivalry of 
parties, self-aggrandizement — in short, all 
the agencies and factors inseparable from 
human nature that influence on material 
lines, have effaced much of the general so- 
licitude that formerly existed. This deca- 
dence of purpose is not unnatural ; a ward- 
ship is a duty, and should not be a con- 
tinuous necessity, its greatest blessing a 
consciousness that its ideals and purposes 



have been assimilated b}^ its wards, and 
lifted higher in humanity's scale. Too 
much dependence is as hurtful as entire 
neglect. The more persistent the call for 
the forces Avithin the greater the response 
from the assistants without. The lethargy 
or neglect to give the Negro protection in 
the exercise of his constitutional rights is 
developing a spirit of self-help and inten- 
sity of purpose, to find and adopt a course 
and measures remedial that may be prac- 
tical and efficient; to ignore the sentimen- 
tality of politics and subordinate them to 
conditions irrespective of party. He has 
found that ^^tlie mills of the gods grind 
slowly;'' that the political lever needs for 
its fulcrum a foundation as solidlj^ mate 
rial as equitably sentimental. 

Proclaim brotherhood, justice, and equal 
rights ever so much, men will nod 
acquiescence with a mental reserva- 
tion of ^'but," significant of ^'Who 
are you? What can you do, or what 
have you done?" It is your current life's 
answer to these interrogatives that most 
interest people in this material world in 
your behalf. Only as we increase in com- 
mercial pursuits, ownership of property, 
and the higher elements of production 
through skilled labor will our political bar- 
ometer rise. Upon these we should anchor 
our hopes, assured that higher education, 
with its "classic graces, will follow in their 
proper places." 

Of the latter a humorous writer, in 
answer to the question from the pres- 



ideiit of an Eastern college, ^"Is there 
any good reason Avliy our sons should not 
study the dead languages?'- said: While 
our sons are not on speaking terms with 
many live languages, it ill becomes them 
to go fooling around the dead and dying. 
I do not think it necessary that our sons 
should study these defunct tongues. A lan- 
guage that did not have strength enough 
to pull through and crawled off some- 
where and died, doesn't seem worth study- 
ing. I will go further, and say I do not 
see v^hj our sons should spend valuable 
time over invalid languages that aren't 
feeling very Avell. Let us not, professor, 
either one of us, send our sons into the 
hospital to lug out languages on a 
stretcher just to study them. No; let us 
bring up our sons to shun all diseased and 
disabled languages, even if it can't be 
proved that a language conies under either 
of those heads; if it has been 'missing since 
the last engagement, it is just as well not 
to have our sons chasing around after it 
with a detective, trying to catch and pore 
over it. 

You may look at it differently, i^ro- 
fessor. Our paths in the great realm of 
education of youth may lie far apart; but it 
is my heartfelt wish that I may never live 
to see a son of mine ride right past healthy 
athletic languages and then stand up in 
the stirrups and begin to whoop and try 
to lariat some poor old language go- 
ing around on a crutch, carrying half 



of its alphabet in a sling. If two- 
tliirds of the words of a language are flat 
on their back, taking quinine, trying to 
get up an aj^petite, let us teach our sons 
that they cannot hope to derive benefit 
from its study.'' 

But Lord Rosebery, ex-Premier of Eng- 
land, in a late address before the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow on ^'Questions of I]mpire/' 
in the following, on action and learning, 
takes a serious view: 

^^There Avas a time, long years ago, when 
the spheres of action and learning were 
separate and distinct; when laymen dealt 
hard blows and left letters to the priest- 
hood. That was to some extent the case 
when our oldest universities were founded. 
But the sei^aration daily narrows. It has 
been said that the true university of our 
days is a collection of books. What if a 
future pliolosopher shall say that the best 
university is a workshop? And yet the 
latter definition bids fair to be the sounder 
of the two. The training of our schools and 
colleges must daily become more and more 
the training for action, for practical pur- 
pose. The question will be asked of the 
product of our educational system : Here is 
a young fellow of twenty; he has passed 
the best years of acquisition and impres- 
sion; he has cost so much; what is his 
value? For what, in all the manifold ac- 
tivities of the world, is he fit? And if the 
ansv^-er be not satisfactory, if the product 
be only a sort of learned mummy, the sys- 



tern will be condemned. Are there not 
thousands of lads today plodding away at 
the ancient classics, and who, at the first 
possible moment, will cast them into space, 
never to reopen them? Think of the Avast 
ed time that that implies; not all wasted, 
perhaps, for something may be gained in 
power of application; but entirely wasted 
so far as available knowledge is con- 

And in keeping with this line of thought, 
the ^^Washington Post,-" of AVashington, 
D. C, in a recent issue, makes the follow- 
ing pertinent and truthful mention: 

'Mlmost without exception, the colleges 
and universities are beginning another 
year Avitli unusually large classes. Many 
of these institutions report the largest 
number of matriculates in their history. 
The aggregate attendance is unquestion- 
ably greater b}' thousands than that of 
any previous year. This is due in part to 
the prevalence of business prosperity and 
in part to the steadily increasing api^ro- 
bation of higher education for women, 
while the natural increase of population 
is also something of a factor. The ^Cleve- 
land Leader/ speaking of the reports of 
large classes of freshmen all over the coun- 
try, says: 

" 'That appears to be the best and most 
conclusive reply which the American peo- 
ple can make to those gentlemen of wealth 
and prominence who, like Mr. Schwab, of 
the Steel Trust, discourage higher educa- 



tion as preparation for the life of tlie busi- 
ness world. It is the solidest kind of 
evidence that the old love of knowledge 
for its own sake and the old faith in the 
beneficial effects of college training upon 
the youth of a country having such a gov- 
-ernment and social organization as this 
Reiiublic has developed remain as strong 
xis ever.' 

To which the Post replies : 

^^That is somewhat hasty and a prob- 
ably erroneous conclusion. The ^'higher 
education'' which Mr. Schwab discourages, 
the old-time classical course, has not 
grown in jKjpular favor. The reverse is 
true. The demand for a more practical 
education in this utilitarian age has com- 
jjelled tlie colleges and universities to 
make radical changes in their curriculum. 
The number of students who elect to take 
the old-time course is smaller in propor- 
tion to the population and wealth of this 
country than it ever was. Science, both 
Ijure and applied, takes a far more promi- 
nent place in collegiate studies than it for- 
merly occupied. Many of the leading 
institutions of learning have introduced a 
commercial department. Everywhere the 
practical, the business idea is becoming 

^^While no intelligent man questions the 
value of classical studies or disputes the 
proposition that a knowledge of the class- 
ics is indispensable to a thorough under- 
standing of our own language, the area 
of x>i*acti(al study has become so vast, 



by reason of new discoveries in science and 
tlie arts, that a choice between the two is 
compulsory to young jiersons Avho liave 
their own fortunes to make. Tlie ohl-time 
course of inatliematics and classics fur- 
nishes splendid mental discipline, with 
much knowledge that may or nmy not put 
its i)ossessor on the road to success in 
business. Jiut the time required for that 
course, if foUoAved by a three or four years' 
term of practical study, sets a young man 
so far along in life that lie has a lioi)eless 
race with younger men who dispenscMl with 
the classical and w(Mit in zealously for the 

^^The change from the old to tln^ new 
lines of education is even more marked 
in th(^ common schools than in !h(^ col- 
k^ges and uuiv(Msiti(\s. TIk^ practical be- 
gins in the free kindergarten and runs with 
more or less directness through all the 
grades, trillions are (^xpeudcMl upon in- 
dustrial training. The busin<^ss high 
schools are a grt^at featur(^ of the free* 
school system. All this is comparatively 
n(MV. It has come bcM-ausc^ of rlu^ uiM-essi- 
ties of an industrial age. 

^Knowledge for its own sake' is becom- 
ing more and more a luxury, in which the 
sons and daughters of the rich indulge, 
while the representatives of families that 
are merely well to do feel that they nuist 
acquire knowledge for practical uses. And 
this tendency is likely to continue, for, as 
we have said, the field of the practical is 



expanding. Take, for example, eleericity 
and its uses. All that Avas known of this 
subject in the time of our grandfathers 
could be learned in a few days or weeks. 
To be an up-to-date electrical scientist and 
practical electrician in 1901 means that 
years liaA e been devoted to hard Avork.'' 

The crude notion held by some, that in 
far-oft* climes, to the American Negro un- 
knoAvn, Avho, with small capital and limited 
education; with an iuherit(Ml mental iner- 
tia that is being dispelhul and can only be 
eradicated by contact Avith superior en- 
A'ironment, that there aAvaits him peace, 
plenty, and equality, is an ignus fatuus 
the most delusive. Peace is the exhaustion 
of strif(% and is only secure in her triumphs 
in being in instant readiness for Avar; 
equality a myth, and plenty the accumula- 
tion of Aveary toil. 

With traA^el somewhat extensive and 
diversitied; residence in tropical lati- 
tudes of Kegro origin, I have a de- 
cided conviction, desi)ite the crucial test 
to Avhich he has been subjected in the past 
and the present disadvantages under Avhich 
he labors, noAvhere is the promise along all 
the lines of opportunity brighter for the 
American Negro than here in the land of 
his nativity. For he needs the inspiriting 
dash, push, and invincible determination 
of the Anglo-Saxon (having sufficient of his 
deAiltry) to make him a factor acknowl- 
edged and respected. But the fruit of ad- 
vantage will not drop as ripe fruit from 



the tree; it can be gotten only by watch- 
ful, patient tillage, and frugal garnering. 
Ignorance and wastefulness among the in- 
dustrious but uneducated poor render 
them incapable to cope with the shrewd 
and unprincipled. The rivalry to excel in 
outward appearance and social amenities 
beyond the usual moderate means on the 
part of the educated is a drawback to any 
people, but one disastrous to the Negro 
in his march through arduous toil and re- 
stricted conditions to financial independ- 


President of Arkansas Baptist College, and Editor of the "Vanguard." 
Born 1859, at Portland. Arkansas — Strdied at P.raneh Normal Colli — Cradn: 
At Roger Williams' T'niversity, Teanessee, Mainly by His Efforts this 
College Only on Paper in 1887, has now Grounds and Buildings 
Worth over $.50,000 and Several Hundred Students. 




At the Arkansas State election in 1876 
I was selected as Presidential elector, re- 
ceiving the highest vote on the Republican 
ticket. The national election of that year 
was followed by the memorable canvass of 
the contested vote for Rutherford B. 
HayeSj which was ultimately settled by a 
commission appointed under the Compro- 
mise Bill, which was passed by Congress in 
January, 1877, Florida, Louisiana, and 
South Carolina declaring for Hayes. That 
the compromise was the result of an agree- 
ment that the United States troops should 
by withdrawn from Southern soil cannot 
be doubted, and for so doing he was bit- 
terly criticised and denounced by many of 
his party, resulting, as it did, in the trans- 
fer of those States in the South from Re- 
publican, by continuous and unblushing 
disfranchisement, to Democratic rule. 

President Hayes, not unlike many of his- 
toric fame, may have been "born before his 
time;'^ that his action in removing U. S. 
troops was immature, a continuation and 
increase of intimidation and violence 
abundantly proved. At what period of 
their remaining on Southern soil would 
have been a fitting time for removal, is an 


enigma hard to elucidate. Tlieir reteiitiou 
ultimately rested with the sentiment and 
judgment of the nation. In the South the 
menace of tlieir presence Avas galling and 
increasing in intensity. The North was 
daily growing averse to the bivouac of 
troops over a people Avho swore that they 
were on terms of ^^peace with all the world 
and the rest of mankind.'' Would compul 
sion soften animosity? Hayes Avas un- 
doubtedly honest and sincere, but not of 
that class of epoch-making men avIio anchor 
on the right, aAvait and buffet the adA^anc- 
ing storm. - Conciliation coyed as gently 
as loving doA e his mate, Avhile Avithin easy 
reach glistened the jeAvel ^^Presidenf' of a 
fraternized Kepublic. 

There are possibly men who Avould 
have spurned the enchantress. But an 
array of figures and ability to enu- 
inerate Avould not be sorely taxed in 
finding the number. I Avas among those 
at that period Avho saw the inutility of 
depending on physical force to extract jus- 
tice and lawful methods from an unAvill- 
ing constituency; that the reaction from a 
forced comi)ulsion in the moral Avorld was 
as eAadent and unfailing under the condi- 
tions as from compression in the physical. 
I was hopeful of good results, and so ex- 
pressed myself in an intervicAV with the 
President. He replied that he was "sin- 
cere in his policy, and should adhere to it 
unless it seemed impracticable that the 
policy of force and musket had been tried 


Principal of High School, Little Rock, Arkansas. 
An Erudite Scholar and Zealous Tutor. 



in the South and had failed and public 
sentiment noAV demanded a change.'' We 
had and have the change, and it Avould 
have been a bright jewel in the autonomy 
of many of the Southern States had it been 
more liberal and righteous. 

History, as a record of the lower to a 
higher status of civilization increases in 
intensity and value as it records superior 
conditions, and the degree of unrest and 
earnestness of appeal for the abrogation of 
oppression is indicative of the appreciation 
and fitness for the rights of citizenship. 

It should be remembered that as it be- 
came men dowered with the proud title 
of American Citizen, the Negro has not 
been remiss in stating his grievances and 
appealing for justice. To have done less 
would have banished sympathy and inyited 
contempt. In Arkansas and some other 
Southern States there is a growing de- 
mand for the forms of law and the main- 
tenance of order, and, while not attaining 
the zenith of acconiplii-'hment, it will be 
observable when contrasted with the law- 
lessness depicted in the following resolu- 
tions of a convention of colored men held 
in Little Rock August 29, 1883. They con- 
tain views and convictions I there pre- 
sented, the equity of which 'tis fondly 
hoped have not been lost by lapse of time: 

^^Be it resolved, That this convention of 
colored men of the State of Arkansas have 
still to complain that yiolence and injus- 
tice to their race still exists to an alarm- 



iiig extent. In most cases the perpetrators 
go unwhipped of justice. That when they 
are arraigned the law is administered with 
such laxity and partiality that the escape 
of the criminal is both eas}^ and possible. 
In no instance is the penalty of the law en 
forced against a white man for the murder 
of a Negro, however palpable the case may 
be; whilst in most instances the bare ac- 
cusation of a Negro committing a homi- 
cide upon a white man is sufficient for law, 
with all its forms, to be ruthlessly set aside 
and the doctrine of lynch, swift and cer- 
tain to be enforced. 

Case after case is clironich^d by tlie 
press of Negroes liung by infuriated 
mobs witliout trial- to determine their 
guilt or innocence. The farcical pro- 
ceedings at law in tlieir inefficiency of 
prosecution, the selection and manipula- 
tion of jurors, and the character of public 
sentiment have had painful illustration in 
several cases, and but recently of Johnson, 
the colored man murdered in this, the capi- 
tal county of the State. The homicide of 
this man, a servant at a picnic, of a Chris- 
tion society of white people, and in their 
presence, Avithout provocation, was uni- 
versally admitted. Notwithstanding, a 
jury of twelve men, with almost indecent 
haste, finds the murderer not guilty. A 
verdict fit to shock the sense of every 
friend of right and justice. Eobinson, a 
white man, for killing a colored man be- 
cause his victim asked for the return of 



money loaned, received but two years in 
the penitentiary. Burril Lindsey, a col- 
ored farmer, who had honiesteaded land 
in Van Buren Count}^ and had commenced 
cultivation, was waited upon and told he 
must leave; that they would have no ^^nig- 
gers'' in the settlement. They came back 
at midnight and broke down his door. One 
of the mob, h'ing dead on the threshold 
was Burril Lindse} 's response. The press 
of our city — ^to their lionor be it noted — 
said lie did tlie proper thing. l\(^spectable 
men in the neighborhood who knew Lind- 
sey said the same. But yet, after being 
harrass(Ml by tlireats and legal persecution 
for months, a jury found him guilty of an 
assault with intent to kill, and six years in 
the penitentiary at hard labor is the pen- 
alty for defending his home. 

Homicide has no local habitation; it is 
the accident of every community, in every 
nation, and the justice and impartiality 
with which the law is administered is the 
measure of their humanity and civiliza- 
tion. But here we have the spectacle of 
the press, pulpit, and rostrum of the State, 
with exceptions scarcely to be noted, either 
entirely dumb or a mere passing allusion, 
more often in commendation than censure. 
AVe are positive in our confidence that 
those, and only those who expose and de- 
nounce and lay bare this conduct, and 
thereby create a sentiment that will lessen 
this evil, are the only true friends to the 
State's moral as well as its material prog- 



ress. That the attemi>t to deny and evade 
responsibility does not meet the issue in 
the minds of thoughtful men, wlio believe 
that no life is safe where the humblest is 

^^We insist that value of the colored 
brother as a tiller of the soil, the increas- 
ing thrift and economy conceded in secur- 
ing homes and taxable property, their fa- 
vorable comparison (b}^ fair judgment) 
with an}' other classes as to their moral 
and law-abiding character, should at least 
merit justice in the courts, and we ask for 
htfn consideration and fair settlement for 
labor. For where could superiority and 
nobility^ of character be better displayed 
than by generous treatment to the former 
bondsmen. That the better element of the 
Democratic party do not favor this lawless- 
ness we are continually assured. Hut the 
ugly fact stands out in bold relief that they 
are unable or unwilling, with forces of 
wealth and intelligence, to create a health- 
ier sentiment. To them, and just men ev- 
erywhere, we appeal to assist in bringing 
the moral poAver of denunciation against 
this great wrong, that impartial justice 
shall be the law for ever}' citizen of the 
Commonwealth; and that the president 
and secretary be empowered to sign a pe- 
tition in behalf and as the earnest request 
of this convention for presentation to his 
Excellency the Governor, asking executive 
clemency in the pardon of Burril Lindsey, 
now incarcerated in the penitentiary', un- 
der a sentence of six years.'' 



The Governor was graciously pleased to 
pardon him, but for personal safetj^ he was 
compelled to abandon his homestead and 
leave the State. 

For some time a general unrest among 
the colored people on account of violence 
had permeated the South, and thousands 
of the most substantial phmters had al- 
ready settled in Kansas, Indiana, and 
other Western States to enjoy legal pro- 
tection hitherto denied them. Upon the 
question of Negro emigration the white 
South were divided. The planters and 
leading politicians were adverse. The 
planter for the reason that he could not 
supplant him by more efficient and tract- 
able labor; the i)olitician for fear of reduc- 
ing Congressional representation, each re- 
gardless of the conditions creating his dis- 
content. A minority resj)ectable in num- 
bers and prominent for standing, approved 
of his removal, alleging that the move- 
ment would be mutuall}^ beneficial, that 
it would induce white immigration, re- 
lieve the congested overproduction of the 
staples of the Southern States, introduce a 
higher class of industries, and simplify the 
so-called problem h\ removing the bugbear 
of Negro domination by means unobjec- 

Of this class of opinion the ^^Nasliville 
American,'' of the State of Tennessee, 
was a fair exponent. In its issue 
of May 9, 1879, it had this to say: "We 
rather rejoiced at a movement which will 



bring about a better uuderstaiidiug and 
teach both races a lesson they ought to 
learn. To the Negro it is simply a ques- 
tion as to whether he will be better oft* 
there or here. If there, he ought to go; if 
here, he ought to stay; and this simple 
economic proposition Avill settle it.'' 

This, the sentiment of the best Southern 
thought, encountered aa. adverse which, 
while unwilling to grant the Negro the 
right of an American citizen, maltreated 
and imprisoned immigrant agents; desir- 
ing his retention in a specious of serfdom. 
Such being the conditions existing at the 
time of the meeting of the Nashville Con- 
ference in 1879, induc(Ml it by resolution to 
request Senator Windoui, Chairman of the 
National Executive Committee, to apiH)int 
a committee to visit the Western States 
to ascertain what inducement they offered 
for immigration. 

In pursuance Avhereof I received the fol- 
lowing, containing words of wisdom war- 
ranting their insertion here: 

''United States Senate, 
^^Washington, D. C, Jan. 10, 1879. 

^^My Dear Sir: In compliance with the 
resolution of the Nashville Convention re 
questing me, as Chairman of the National 
Executive Committee, to appoint a commit- 
tee of three to visit Western States and 
Territories and report, not later than the 
1st of November, upon the health, climate^ 
and productions of said States and Terri- 



tories, I have the honor to designate you 
as one of the number of said committee. 
In doing so I may add that the 
duty involves great labor and respon- 
sibility on your part and requires 
the exercise of that sound discre- 
tion for which you are noted among 
your friends. The exodus of the colored 
people involves the greatest consequences 
to themselves and should only be under- 
taken after the most careful inquiry and 
preparation. If judiciously guided and 
regulated, I am thoroughly convinced that 
it will result in great good. If not so 
regulated, it may cause incalculable suf- 
fering to the colored race, and work great 
injury to the industrial interest of the 
South. If the Negro can have fair treat- 
ment as a citizen and a luan in his present 
home, he will probably not care to remove. 
If he cannot obtain such treatment there, 
it is his right and duty to secure it by every 
means in his power, and no one has the 
right to say he may not change his resi- 
dence at his own will and pleasure. 

"Your proposed inquiry' will contribute 
much to inform and control the action of 
those who may desire to emigrate and your 
discretion gives the best assurance that no 
rash action will be advisable. I regret the 
committee has no funds at command to 
pay your necessary traveling expenses. 

"Hon James P. Eapier, Member of Con- 
gress, of Montgomery, Alabama, I liave 
also designated ais a member of said com- 



mittee, but I am not sufficiently advised to 
name the third member. 

^^Very respectfully yours, 
(Signed.) ^^WM. WINDOM, 

^^Mifflin W. Gibbs, Little Rock, Ark.'' 

It often happens that distance lends en- 
chantment to the view; that while contend- 
ing with hardship, disappointment, and 
earnest toil, we are apt to imagine that at 
some far locality, amid new surroundings, 
there abides a reign of contentment and 
happiness, where labor has its highest re- 
wards and where there is a minimum of 
those trials inseparable from human exist- 
ence. The gratification of this migratory 
impulse has in many instances proved dis- 
astrous, the yielding to which should be 
only indulged after every possible effort 
has been made to remove local obstacles 
by uprightness, softening animosities, and 
by industry accumulate wealth. But emi- 
grants have been illustrious as nation 
builders, their indomitable spirit blessing 
mankind and leaving impress on the scroll 
of time. The bump on the head of the Ne- 
gro that the phrenologists call "inhabitive- 
ness'' is very prominent; he is not nat- 
urally migratory — "content to bear the ills 
he has, than fly to those he knows not of.'' 
Hence there appeared reason, if not entire 
"method in his madness." 

In all moA^ements of like character there 
are always conflicting rumors and re- 

Un'it(?d States Stamp Agent. 

Educated at Cleveland, Ohio — A Iveadmg Member of the Bar — Twice Elected to 
th€ Senate of the Ohio Legislature. 



ports as to success or failure of the 
benefit or loss of the venture, and 
this was no exception. Colored ini- 
migrants to tlie number of 10.000 had 
left the South during a brief period, 
and the wildest rumors circulated as to 
reception and success of these forerunners, 
and, as bad news is ever alert, much Avas 
heard that was discouraging and demand- 
ed investigation; hence the action of the 
Nashville Conference referred to. In pur- 
suance of our appointment, J. T. llapier 
and myself, in August, 1879, went to To- 
peka, Kan., and from there, chiefly by 
wagon travel, visited different colonies of 
the immigrants. Kansas had received 
seven or eight thousand. At Topeka we 
found nearl}^ 100 at immigrant camp re- 
ceiving rations, some sick, others looking 
for work; the balance had settled on lands 
or had found work as laborers. At Dun- 
lop we found a colony of 300 families set- 
tled upon 20,000 acres of land. In Wabun- 
see Countj^ 230 families had settled on 
their land, while in Lawrence and other 
counties hundreds had found work. Me- 
chanics receiving |2 to |2.25 per day and 
farm hands |13 to |15 per month and 
board. We found women in great demand 
for house servants from |6 to f 8 per month. 

In our interviews with the colonists we 
found the list and nature of their griev- 
ances were the same as have impelled men 
in all ages to endeavor to better their con- 
dition, and should five or ten thousand, for 



a period, aiinualh^ leave the South and set- 
tle in AVesteru States and Territories, the 
effect would be mutually beneficial to 
whites and blacks alike. In Emporia we 
found the colony in a \ei'Y prosperous 
state. Out of 120 families one-half owned 
their houses and land on which they lived. 
We remained twenty days in Kansas and 
had not opportunity to visit Indiana and 
other States that had received immigrants. 
But the information we received, Avith few 
exceptions, was similar to that of those 
visited. There had been suffering and des- 
titution in some localities during the past 
winter; that was to be expected, as many 
had come wholly unprepared and without 
that push and readj^ adaptation to the 
status of a new country. 

We made an extended report to Sena 
tor Windom, which contained data as to 
the success and prosperity of the many 
and advice to the moneyless to avoid the 
[Suffering which might lie in wait. 




In 1877 I was appointed hj the Presi- 
dent Register of the United States Land 
Office for the Little Rock District of Arkan- 
sas. The State was blessed with a valuable 
patriinony, by liaving at the time of its ad- 
mission into the Union an extensive area 
of agricultural, besides thcmsands of acres 
of swamp, school and other lands, under 
State control and disposition. The United 
States (to\ ernment liad reserved many mil- 
lions (»f acres, which under its liomestead 
law became available for applicants for 40, 
80, or 160 acres. No economy of the Gov- 
ernment has been more fruitful in substan- 
tial blessing upon the industrious poor 
than throwing open these lands for en- 
trance and ownership of homes by the pay- 
ment of a nominal fee for recording and 
proof of actual settlement thereon. 

The renowned and lamented Robert J. 
Ingersoll, once, while extolling the benig- 
nity and patriotic effect of the homestead 
law, said: ^^Who do you suppose would take 
up arms to defend a boarding house?'' The 
opportunity to enjoy the ownership of a 
home strongly appeals, not alone to our av- 
arice, but to the ins^tincts of our nature. For 



here is located the citadel of our hopes and 
fears, our joys and griefs; here congregated 
are ties the most sacred, and a love de- 
voted. It is the ever-burning light, the 
steady lieat-giviug impulse, and inspiration 
to deeds of domestic utility or of noble dar- 
ing. For its protection the heart leaps and 
the arm strikes. Hence, for domestic felic- 
ity, or national autonomy, the home is an 
experience, and for libert.y a conservator. 
Having these convictions during my 12 
years' service in the Land Office as Regis- 
ter and afterwards as Receiver of Public 
Moneys, I was earnest in my endeavor to 
have the poor of all classes enter these 
lands. On the political stump at every 
election, while having as my mission the 
political ascendancj^ of my party, I always 
felt it a duty to dwell impressively upon 
that theme. Upon asking all those living 
on their own lands to hold up their hands, 
the gleam of pride on the countenances of 
many of my colored auditors as, standing 
tip-toe, with hands at arms' length, was 
shared by me, and a stimulus to the luke- 
warm, for on subsequent visits I would find 
an increase of holdings. 

For the Negro OAvnership of land and 
home is not only an important factor, in 
his domestic life, for as taxpayer, there is 
a mutuality of interest between himself 
and other members of the body politic, bus- 
iness and trade seek him, it impels rever- 
ence for the law, and protection of the pub- 
lic peace. His own liability to outrage be- 



comes small. His character for credit in- 
creases- in the ratio of his lioldings, and 
while manhood suffrage is the professed 
but often disavowed legacy for all born be- 
neath the flag, his rights of citizenship are 
more often accorded. 

While in the Land Service of the United 
States there were manv examples of heroic 
conduct by colored settlers worthy of the 
highest praise. Many of them, emigrants 
from other Southern States, seeking better 
conditions, and arriving Avith barely suf- 
ficient to pay entrance fee, and nothing to 
sustain them in their fight with nature to 
clear their heavily-wooded land and fit it 
for cultivation. Hiring to others for brief 
spells, as necessity compelled them, to ob- 
tain small stocks of food and tools, five 
years after entrance, when the.y proved up 
their holdings and got their deeds, found 
them in comfortable log or frame houses 
of two or more rooms; sheds, with a cow, 
calves, swine, and poultry, and ten or more 
acres under cultivation, according to the 
number and availability of labor in their 
families. And, best of all, better than the 
mere knowledge of success, themselves 
crowned Avith that pride of great achieve- 
ment ever and only the result of rigid self- 
denial and incessant toil. 

In the National Republican Convention 
held at Chicago, June, 1880, was a contest 
that Avill be ever memorable as pertaining 
to a third term for the Presidency. 

Landing at San Francisco, September, 
1879, from his tour of two years around 



the world, and the honored guest of the 
crowned heads of Europe, General Grant's 
travel through the States was a continued 
ovation. On his arrival at Little Rock, 
Ark., citizens from all over the State 
hastened to do him honor, culminating 
with a banquet at the Capitol Hotel. The 
gathering was democratic in the best sense 
of that word, political lines were erased. 
Republicans and Democrats vieing with 
each other in giving the distinguished man 
a fitting reception. Nor were social lines 
adhered to, the writer being a guest and re- 
sponding to the toast ^'The Possibilities 
of American Citizenship.'' 

At the Arkansas Republican State Con- 
vention in 1880 I was elected a delegate to 
the National Convention of June 2 of that 
year. As a memento I highly prize my 
bronze medal proclaiming me as one of the 
historic ^^306" that never surrendered — 
compact and erect, ^^with everv^ gun shot- 
ted and every banner flying," went down 
with General Grant in an unsuccessful ef- 
fort to nominate him for a third term. It 
was there that Roscoe Conkling made the 
nominating speech in behalf of the General 
that will live in history, stirring the hearts 
of the immense audience to a climax of pa- 
triotic fervor. When he said, ^^Should you 
ask from whence he comes, the answer it 
shall be, He comes from Appomattox and 
the famous apple tree." 

The fiat of the Convention was an illus- 
tration of the ephemeral character of co- 



temporary popular acclaim. Ambitious 
rivalry, the anticipations of enyy^ the bit- 
terness of disappointed office seekers dur- 
ing two former Administrations, the hon- 
est belief of the timid that a third term 
for one soever trustworthy presaged and 
paved the way to an imperial monarchy; 
the mistakes una^ oidable from misplaced 
confidence, happening in the career of all 
men and inseparable in the administration 
of government — all these elements, al- 
though incongruous in their nature and 
make-up, when they conspire are a formid- 
able factor, and as such accomplished his 
defeat. Tliough dead, Ulysses Grant still 
lives on; the attributes of his personal no- 
bility as a man, his patriotism as a citizen 
of the Kepublic, his ability and clear per- 
spective as a statesman, his genius as a 
warrior, his magnanimity and kindness to 
a chivalrous, heroic but fallen foe, will ever 
typify bis greatness in civic virtues and 
valiant deeds. 

The manner of General Grant's defeat 
Avas peculiar. The name of James A. Gar- 
field, the successful nominee, and in polit- 
ical i)arlance the "'dark horse'' (undoubt- 
edly foreplanned but kept in the shade), 
was suddenly sprung upon the Convention 
and amid a whirhvind of excitement quick- 
ly received adherents from the opposition 
which increased in volume at each succes- 
sive balloting, until the climax was reached 
that gave General Garfield the coveted 
prize. For some time there was much bit- 



terness, and iutercliange of compliments 
more emphatic than polite. Within the 
party charges of infidelity to promises were 
rife. But the second sober thought of a 
wise conservatism, which is ever evidence 
and measure of a people's civilization, tem- 
pered strife and assuaged the pangs of dis- 
a])pointment. He was handsomely sup- 
ported and elected, and on the 4th of 
March, 1881, was inaugurated as President, 
amid acclaim, with promise of a successful 
Administration. But upon what a slender 
thread do human plans relv! Scarcely 
live months elapsed when President, _ 
field was assassinated by Charles jffuiteau, 
a man of no repute, and emblems of sorrow 
drooped throughout the nation. This na- 
tional calamity necessitated the second 
inauguration of a President during the 
year 1881. The then Vice-President, Ches- 
ter A. Arthur, was duly installed Septem- 
ber 30 of that year. His execution of the 
duties of that high office, assumed under 
conditions intricate and most trying, dis- 
armed criticism by its wisdom and ability. 

When a prospective candidate for re- 
election in 1884 the press of New York^ 
having solicited expressionis of fitness from 
delegates to the last National Convention, 
I was pleased with the opportunity to 
make this small contribution. 

Little Rock, Ark., Aug. 1, 1884. 
Dear Sir : 

I but voice the sentiment of the country 
when 1 sav that I consider the Adminis- 



tratiou of President Arthur lias been sig- 
nalized by its justice, eminent statesman- 
ship and wise discretion.'' 

Such was the tenor of mention, but much 
more pronounced, by men of the party, 
and Mr. Arthur's nomination previous to 
the assembling of the next Presidential 
Convention seemed a foregone conclusion. 

Xothing I can write will fittingly de- 
scribe the personnel of James G. Blaine, 
who was to be the prime feature of the 
Convention on nomination day. As a man 
in the held of statesmanship and in inten- 
sity of devotion, he was more idolized than 
any since his prototype, Henry Chdy. With 
political erudition was blended an elo- 
quence inspiring and fascinating; a nobil- 
itj of character often displayed as the 
champion of the weak; a dis])utant adept 
in all the mazes of analysis, (hmunciation, 
or sarcasm, he had created antipathy as 
bitter as liis affections Avere unyielding. 
While Speaker of the House, Avith his coun- 
terpart in eloquence, lioscoe Conkling, he 
had many tilts. One of the most noted and 
probably far-reaching in impeding his Pres- 
idential aspirations, A>'as his defense of 
General Fry, Avliom Conkling sought to 
have impeached, but Avho Avas successfully 
vindicated and afterAvards promoted by the 
War Department. During the struggle 
Conkling hurled a javelin of taunt and in- 
vectiA^e, incisive, but thought to be unjust, 
inducing a response said to have been ter- 
rific in its onslaught, confounding the 



speaker and raising* excitement in the 
House to the highest pitch. I transcribe an 
epitome of the speech, which will be seen 
to have bristled witli galling ridicule: ^^As 
to the gentleman's cruel sarcasm, I hope he 
will not be too severe. The contempt of 
that large-minded gentleman is so wilting, 
his haughty disdain, his grandiloquent 
swell, his majestic supereminerit, overpow- 
ering turkey-gobbler strut, has been so 
c rushing to myself and all the members of 
this House that I knoAv it was an act of the 
greatest temerity for me to enter upon a 
controversy Avith him." Then, quoting 
ironically a newspaper comparison of Mr. 
Conkling and Henry AVinter Davis, ascrib- 
ing qualities held by them in common, he 
proceeded: ^^The resemblance is great, and 
It has given his strut additional pomposity. 
The resemblance is great, it is striking — 
Hyperion to a satyr; Thersites to Hercules; 
mud to marble; dunghill to diamond; a 
singed cat to a Bengal tiger; a whining 
pupp3' to a roaring lion. Shade of the 
]nighty Davis, forgive the almost profana- 
tion of that jocose satire!'- 

But James G. Blaine, that master of 
diplomacy and magnetic fame, with an as- 
tute following inspired and wild with 
gilded promises; the nominating speech of 
Robert J. Ingersoll, prince of orators, laud- 
ing the nominee as ^^like a mailed warrior, 
like a plumed knight'' — all these forces 
contributed to turn the tide from Arthur 
and give him the nomination. I was one 



of a lonely three of the Arlvaiisas delega- 
tion that sood by the State's instrnctions 
and voted for Arthur, nine of the delega- 
tion voting for Blaine. For obeying the 
State and not the after conclusion of the 
delegation, in my next race for a delegate 
1 was ^Meft at the stand.'' 

My failure reminded me of the boy — a 
humble imitator of the great George Wash- 
ington — who backed to death a choice tree. 
W hen asked who did it, jolly, gushing and 
truthful, said, ^'I did it, pap.-' The old man 
seized and gathered him, stopping the 
whipping occasionally to get breath and 
wipe off the perspiration, would remark: 
^^And had der imperdence to .confess it.'' 
The boy, wlien finally released, between 
sobs sought solace by sa.ying, ^^I will never 
tell the truth again as long as I live." I 
did not conclude that one should be false 
to an implied promise with instructions re- 
ceived, but I was impressed with the (con- 
viction that it is unwise to trammel a dele- 
gation with decisive instructions. A gen- 
eral expression of the feeling or bias of the 
State Convention is. proper, but so much 
can happen during the interim to change 
conditions that ultimate action should be 
largeh^ left to the judgment and integrity 
of the delegation. 

The manner of choosing a President is 
entirely different from that designed hj 
the founders of the republic. The selection 
of candidates by an organized party was 
not anticipated. It was intended that men 




of liioh character should be chosen bv the 
citizens of each State as electors, and they 
should select the men they deemed most tit 
to be Presidejit, and the selection thereaf- 
ter ratified by the yote of the people. An 
elector uow is but the mouthpiece of his 
party; no matter what may be his individ- 
ual judgment, he dare not disregard its fiat. 
The result of the national election was the 
defeat of Mr. Blaine and the election of the 
Democratic candidate, Groyer Cleveland. 
Mr. Cleveland had an independent person- 
ality and the courage of his convictions. 
Affable and cordial in his intercourse with 
Afro-Americans, and to those of liis polit- 
ical liousehold was prodigal in the be- 
stowal of appointments. The effect of this 
was that manj' colored men, leaders of 
thought and I'ace action, not seeing an in- 
crease of oppression, so freely predicted in 
the event of a Democratic President, ad- 
vocated a division of the colored vote, with 
a view of harmonizing feeling and mutual 
benefit. A welcoming of that approach in 
the South may be deferred, but will yet be 
solicited, despite its present disloyalty to 
the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments 
to the Constitution. 




The closing decade of the past century 
was conspicuous for exliibitions of products 
of nature and skill intended to stimulate 
a country \s consumption, but mainly to in- 
i-rease exportation; for a nation, not unlike 
an individual, that buys more than its re- 
siources warrant, bankruptcy is inevitable. 
Hence the industrial struoole of all pro- 
gressive nations to produce more than they 
eonsume, export the residue and thereby 
add to the national wealth. 

The United States not onlv excels in the 
magnitude of natural productions, but in 
skill in manufacturing articles. The vast 
stretch of agricultural lands for natural 
products, superiority of mechanical appli- 
ance, and the expertness of American work- 
men herald the supremacv of the United 
States for quantity, qualitv and celerity. 
For Yankee ingenuiy has not only invented 
a needed article, but has invented a ^'tiling 
to make the thing.^' 

National and State expositions for the 
extension of American commerce and de- 
velopment of State undertakings have been 
marked features of American enterprise, 
creating a national fraternity, and stimu- 



lating domestic industries. While tiie 
financial motiAe is ever in the forefront 
and the impetus that gives it ^^a habitation 
and a name/^ the moral effect is the reflex 
influence of contact, the interchange of 
fraternal amenities that ripen and become 
helpful for the world's peace, progress and 
civilization. At the present time Consuls 
of our Government inform the State De- 
partment that agents of American manu- 
facturers of steel, electric apparatus, city 
railroads and improvements in machinery 
are in evidence in Europe to an extent hith- 
erto unknown. The directors of the World's 
Exposition held at New Orleans, La., in 
ISSJr, ga^e a pressing invitation to Afro- 
Aaiiericans to furnish exhibits of their pro- 
duction from farm, shop, and home. The 
late B. K. Bruce, having been created Chief 
Director, appointed commissioners for the 
various States to solicit and obtain the 
best specimens of handicraft in their re- 
spective localities for ^^The Department of 
Colored Exhibits/' and to which the fol- 
lowing refers: 

Washington, D. C, Aug. 13, 1884. 
Hon. M. W. Gibbs, 

Little Eock, Ark. 

Dear Sir: 

By virtue of authority vested in me as^ 
Chief Director of the Department of Col- 
ored Exhibits of the World's Exposition, I 
have nominated you for Honorary Commis- 
sioner for the State of Arkansas. It is un- 
necessary for me at this time to make any 



suggestions relaitive to the importance of 
managing this business in a manner that 
will reflect credit on all immediately con- 
cerned and our people in aeueral futher 
than to saj^ that my heart is thoroughly in 
the Avork, I will communicate with you 
from time to time, after being advised of 
your acceptance, giving necessary informa- 
tion and instructions. 

Hoping that you will undertake the ful- 
fillment of the trust, I am, 

Very respectfully and truly yours, 
Chief Director. 

I therefore accepted, and proceeded to 
canvass my State urging the great oppor- 
tunity offered to show our progress in in- 
dustry and culture, on the fields of nature 
or within the realms of art. The moA^ement 
was a novel one, and the leading colored 
men and women in the different sections of 
the State had much to do to awaken the 
interest that resulted in a very commend- 
able showing. 

One of the specialties of these exposi- 
tions was what was designated as ^^Eman- 
cipation Day,'' or colored people's day, for 
the twofold purpose of directing the atten- 
tion of the general public to race advance- 
ment, and inducing a larger attendance of 
the class directly concerned, and thereby 
stiniulate race pride for areater achieve- 
ments. AYith some of our brethren this 
appointment of a particular day seemed 



derogatory to their claim of recognition 
and equality of citizenship, and evoked con- 
siderable discussion. In this I tliought 
some of us were unduly sensitive. Where 
intention can be ascertained it should 
largeh' govein our estimate of human ac- 
tion. This exposition was not only open 
each and every day to our people, but we 
were constantly invited, and the few Avho 
attended were most cordiallv treated and 
our exhibits were properly placed without 

The directors of the exposition were gen- 
tlemen known to be most liberal in their 
dealings with us, and regretted the small 
attendance, remarking that aside from our 
patronage, tlie exhibits would be benefical 
as objert lessons, educating and inspiring, 
and proposed a day — ^^Colored- People's 
Day.'- It was not unlike in design and ef- 
fect ^'Emancipation Day'' at the Minneapo- 
lis Exposition, where noted colored leaders 
from various States attended and spoke, 
and were not impressed that it was deroga- 
tory to the race. 

We have a deal of ^^gush'' about recogni- 
tion. A demand for recognition presup- 
poses a rightful claim based upon an in- 
herent interest — deportment, special fit- 
ness, or legal right. In politics we right- 
fully claim recognition in the ratio of our 
numerical contribution to the body politic, 
and from public carriers, for the reason of 
performance of our part of the contract. 

In our demand for a more extended rec- 


Born in 1872 at Dayton, OhiO' — Author and Poet — The Foremost of his Raee tor 
Versatility in the Field of Literature — His Poetry and Prose are Rtnid 
in Erery Clime Where Men Love Truth and Nature the More 
For Being Clothed in Beauty of Diction, or Quaint- 
ness of Dialect — He has Published a 
Number of Books. 




ognitiou on these material lines, we should 
first remember that our contributions are 
genera] 1}^ meager, and that these exhibi- 
tions are quite the product of the business 
ventures and expenditure of our ^'brother 
in Avhite/' and then brace up and thank 
Providence that excessive modesty Avill 
never '^strike in'' and kill the Negro. We 
have the men, the money and the ability to 
do much, very much more, on many busi- 
ness lines that are now almost exclusivel}^ 
followed by our more prosperous fellow- 
citizens. No man in our country need beg 
for recognition; he can compel it if he la- 
bors assidu^ously and takes advantage of 
opportunity. It can be truly said of Little 
liock that the press and leading citizens 
have been more just and liberal to her col- 
ored citizens than any other Southern city. 
I well remember when her institutions re- 
lating to commerce, literature, professions. 
Board of Trade, Eeal Estate Exchange, bar 
and h ceum were open to us, whilst two- 
thirds of their members were our political 
opponents. These required but a moderate 
yearlj^ outlay, repaying, largely, in the 
amount of information received. Scarcely 
any availed themselves of these opportuni- 
ties. If for any reason we do not wish to 
profit hj these overtures, Avlien these trees 
bear let us not insist upon receiving the 
choicest of the fruit. 

At an indignation mass meeting som^ 
time ago a good brother reached the climax 
of the grievance and then exclaimed: 



^^How long, O Lord, are we to bear these 

^^For some time longer/' I answered, and 
then said: ^^All things considered, we are 
making progress, and will continue in the 
ratio Ave obtain education and wealth, and 
come forward in the incipiency of public 
enterprises with our money and j)ractical 
knowledge from the best possible sources; 
and, altli()ugh race identity still exists, the 
antagonisms and much of the preju^dice of 
wliich we now complain will be buried un- 
der higher actiyities and greater enter- 
prises — when we haye more bank and rail- 
road stock, fewer high-sounding societies, 
such as ^'The Seyenteen Stars of the C(m- 
solidation,'' ^^Tlie Rising, Perseyering Free 
Sons of Joshua''; "more landlords and few- 
er tenants, more owners of plantations and 
fe\yer share-workers, more merchants and 
fewer dudes, more piety and less religion, 
more econoniy and less wastefulness, more 
confidence and less enyy. I simply rise to 
submit these as irresistible claims to a 
higher recognition." I succeeded in mak- 
ing my escape, for which I was thankful. 




Previous to the exposition at New Or- 
leans in 1885, Mr. Henry Brown, of Oberlin, 
Ohio, visited the Southern States to obtain 
information as to the A'iews and desire of 
leadin.a colored men regarding' tlie estab- 
lishment of '"Schools of Trade'' in the South 
where the race could become proficient in 
all the mechanical arts. He came at the 
suggestion of philanthropic men of capital 
in Northern States, who thought by such 
special means colored men and women 
could have an opportunity to equip them- 
selves with handicraft, denied them by the 
trades unions and other influences in the 

On his presentation of the project in Lit- 
tle Eock, it being so completely in line w ith 
my vicAv of a factor so important for the 
uplifting of the race to a higher manhood 
and financial standing, I eagerly co-oper- 
ated. It was determined to take advantage 
of the attraction of the exposition at New 
Orleans, issue a call for a conference at that 
point, and thereby have a representative 
gathering to obtain their views. I there- 
fore proposed, had printed and issued the 




^^Emancipated, turned loose, poor, igno- 
rant and houseless, continually surrounded 
by difficulties and embarrassments suffi- 
cient to aijpall and retard, by c(mimendable 
effort on their part, sustained by the gen- 
erous aid of philanthroi)ists friendl^y to edu- 
cation, our race in the* South has made 
gratifying advance, mentally and morally. 
But with this progress of mind and morals, 
we are confronted with the need of oppor- 
tunity to qualify ourselves for those activ- 
ities and industries ufM-essary to make a 
peojjle prosperous and hap])y. Our great 
want now is ^cunning hands' to accompany 
cultured brains. Aftei- obtaining the ben- 
etit of our public s(*hools our boys should 
be fitted for some useful and ])rotitable 
jueans of livelihood. The restrictions en- 
gendered by trades unions, and the obsta- 
cles of race prejudice concur to make it im- 
possible for them to obtain trades in the 
Avorkshops of the country. Therefore, we 
need industrial schools where our youth 
can qualify in the various mechanical pur- 
suits and tlu^reby ennoble themselves, and 
add value to the State. For the establish- 
ment of these ''schools of trade'' we require 
a united effort and should make earnest ap- 
peal to the philanthropy of the nation. 

^^In vicAv of tl)is vital necessity the un- 
dersigned do hereby call a conference, with- 
out distinction, of delegates appointed by 



mass meetings in cities and counties; pre- 
siding officers of colleges, principals of 
schools, bishops, and leading ministers; ed- 
itors and publishers friendly to the move- 
ment are also invited to meet at New Or- 
leans, La., January 15, 1885, for expression 
on this subject. Signed, 

^^M. W. Gibbs, Little Kock, Ark.; Hon. J. C. 
Napier, Nashville, Tenn.; A. De Pose, 
New Orleans, La.; Hon. J. C. Clousen, 
Charleston, S. C; liev. B. F. Tanner, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Joseph Carey, Galves- 
ton, Tex.; H. C. Smith, Cleveland, Ohio; 
W. G. Simmons, Louisville, Ky.; Peter 

H. Clark, Cincinnati, Ohio; Hon. B. K. 
Bruce, AA^ashington, 1). C; P. A. Bell, 
San I'rancisco, Cal.; J. W. Cromwell, 
AVashington, I). C; J. Henri Herbert, 
Trenton, N. J.; Hon. Henry Dennis, New 
Orleans, La.; Kev. E. Lee, Jacksonville, 
Fla,; AV. H. Russell, Indianapolis, Ind.; 
F. L. Barnett, Chicago, 111.; A. H. 
Grimke, Boston, Alass.; E. N. Overall, 
Omaha, Neb.; H. M. Turner, Atlanta, 
Ga.; Hon. James Lewis, New Orleans, 
La.; John S. Leary, Fayettville, N. C; 
Hon. Fred Douglass, AA' ashington, D. C; 
T. Thomas Fortune, New York; Eev. M. 
A^an Horn, Newport, E. I.; Lloyd G. 
AAlieeler, Chicago, 111.; J. AA\ Birney, La 
Crosse, AA^is.; M. M. McLeod, Jackson, 
Miss.; George T. Downing, Newport, B. 

I. ; I). Augustus Straker, Columbia, S. C; 
Hon. P. B. S. Pinchback, New Orleans, 
La; Peter Joseph, Mobile, Ala.; H. O. 



Wagner, Denver, Colo.; Hon. W. A. 
Pledger, Atlanta, Ga.; H. Fitzbutler, 
Louisville, Ky.; J. L. Walker, Atchison, 
Kan.; E. P. Wade, St. Paul, Minn.; F. G. 
Barbadoes, Washington, D. 

As a duty, mingled with pleasure, by 
this humble means I reproduce a record of 
the names of men who in the last century 
were intent upon every occasion to promote 
the welfare of the race, many of whom were 
conspicuous in their battle for justice and 
the betterment of their fellow man, thus 
fitting themselves for harmonies of a higher 
clime, have now ^^quiet sleep within the 
grave,'' while with the residue "life's shad- 
OAvs are meeting" and will ere long '''be lost 
to sight," with, let us hope, their memory 
only dimmed by greater activity and deeper 
consecration by their successors for the 
ideals they cherished. Ever loj^al, we 
should not — 

"Kob the dead of their sweet heritage. 
Their myrrh, their wine, their sheet of 
lead and trophies buried" — 

"Go get them where they got them, when 

And as resolutely dig or dive." 

With the departed was Hon. B. K. Bruce, 
who, living to manhood under the blight- 
ing influences of slavery, by honesty, native 
ability and persevering study, placed his 



name iu the forefront, leaving his career 
as a model. With an astuteness of percep- 
tion for the retention of friends, he had 
snavity of manner for the palliation of 
foes; with diligence and faithfulness win- 
ning a constituency that honored him with 
a seat in the United States Senate. 

The conference called at New Orleans, 
La., to promote industrial education, above 
referred to, failed to be fruitful. Members 
of different religious organizations, with- 
out suggestion that their particular sect 
would furnish a modicum of the large ex- 
penditure necessary to the establishment 
of such ^^schools of trade," strove to have 
the movement inaugurated, and launched 
under some particular denominational con- 

Mr. Brown, whose only object in desiring 
to have a conference, was to elicit an ex- 
pression from leading colored men, an ear- 
nest desire for such ^'schools of trade,'' and 
helpful suggestions, looked on the need- 
less strife with amazement and regret, and 
finally determined, as unity of purpose and 
a proper concepion of what was needed 
Avere so sadly lacking, to abandon such an 
instrumentality^ to favor his purpose. 

It can be properly noted here that among 
the many helpful signs of race advance- 
ment not the least is a broader fraternal- 
ization of our religious bodies, an increas- 
ing tolerance, indicative of greater intelli- 
gence, the product of a more widely dis- 
criminated educated ministry. Our 



churclies, being our largest organizations 
numerically (and greatest of moral edu- 
cators), having the ear of the masses, their 
opportunity and growing disposition to 
unite for the material as well as tlie spir- 
itual progress of our people, cannot be too 
highly commended. 

Industrial fairs, promulgated and held 
by the colored people in different Southern 
States, have been exceedingly beneficial 
and cannot be too often repeated. Several 
have occurred at Pine Bluft*, Ark., on the 
extensive race and fair grounds owned by 
Mr. Wiley Jones, who, with Dr. J. II. 
Smith, Ferdinand Havis and other promi- 
nent colored men of the State, by executive 
ability, tact and judgment made them a 

The following notice is from a corre - 
spondent of the Arkansas Gazette: 

'^rine Bluff, Ark., Oct. 21, 188G. 
^'This, the third day, of the fair was 
sunny and bright, and the hearts of the 
management were correspondingly light. 
Even before the gates were open a long 
array of teams were seeking admission. The 
executive officers were early at their posts 
and no time was lost in beginning the ex- 
ercises of the day. President J. H. Smith 
won golden opinions by the pleasant yet 
firm manner he performed his duties. This 
morning the Capital Guards Avere formally 
received by the Colored Industrial Associa- 



**Jiulj»e Gibbis, of Little lioik, delivered 
the welcome addres^^, whieli was a very elo- 
qiieiir and seliolarly i^flforr. 

**Ile tirst praised the directors of the fair 
for their wonderful success, and said it ar- 
gues well for the future of the colored peo- 
ple in that they have had extended such 
vordial support; that nations were inliuen- 
tial in the ratio of their aiirieultural and 
nieclianical development, and that the ar- 
ray of production here made proclaimed in 
hopeful tones that 'we are cominii.' 

'*lle recognized in the formation of the 
Capital (ruards a hopeful omen. Drill de- 
velops precision and accuracy, aside from 
physical development: discipline is invalu- 
able in inculcating the idea of subordina- 
tion, without which no constitutional gov- 
ernnu^nt can long exist. Even if they never 
come within the reach of tiery shot and 
shell, they would be benetited, and if war's 
stern summons swept over the land, he felt 
conlident that no more ready response 
would be made by any class than by the 

Captain Thompson responded in behalf 
of his company, and alluded to the whole- 
souled hospitality that had been bestowed 
upo;i them by the authorities of the fair 
and the citizens generally. The Press As- 
sociation had by their speeches proclaimed 
that the **pen was mightier thau the 
sword,'' which he denied; that the inde- 
pendence of this country from the thraldom 
of p]ngland was won by Washington's 



sword, and that Lincoln's pen only became 
effective after the sword had paved the 
way. It was a recog^nized arbiter in the 
disputes of nations, although the pen could 
render secure what the sword had won." 
TJie Captain put his compan^^ through sev- 
eral evolutions that were very creditably 

In affairs of this character the comingling 
of the substantial ^nd best element of the 
white race, their liberal subscriptions and 
fraternal endeavor, give impetus and val- 
uable assistance, emphasizing the fact 
along the lines of a higher- industrial ad- 
vancement that they are in hearty sympa- 
thy. We cannot too often have these ob- 
ject evidences of our progress. They speall 
loud and convincing far beyond oral an- 
nouncement the most eloquent. It stimu- 
lates the farmer to extra exertion and more 
careful measures for increase of quality 
and quantity of his crop; it inspires the 
artisan and mechanic for his best handi- 
Avork, and welcomes articles the product 
f f our cultured and refined women from the 
realms of the home. We need this contin- 
ued stimulus, shut out as we are from most 
of the higher industries, the incentive born 
of contact, and which promotes rivalry, to 
us is denied; hence our inspiration must 
be inborn and unceasing. 

In the economy of God and nature. His 
handiwork, prominent is ^'^the survival of 
the fittest. The fittest survive because 
they excel. Whether within the student's 



study or the mechanic\s bench, it is excel- 
lence that counts and heralds its own su- 
periority. If we desire not only the best 
personal success, but to be helpful to the 
race, it is not enough for one to be known 
as doctor, lawj^er, mechanic, or planter; 
but it is upon what round of the ladder of 
science mechanics or agriculture he sta'nds. 
Is he above mediocrity; does he excel? The 
affirmative answer to this is the heroic off- 
spring of self-denial and unceasing mental 

A feature of attraction at these fairs ha)S 
been the drill and martial bearing of our 
military companies, for while jubilant in 
the ^^pride and pomp and circumstance of 
glorious war,'' the measure of i)raise for 
precision of manouver of the soldier is only 
excelled by commendation for his bravery 
in action. The colored citizen took quiet 
pride and much interest in these companies 
and were saddened when many were com- 
manded by the State authorities to dis- 
band. The motives Avhich conspired and de- 
manded their dissolution were not com- 
mendable, but ungrateful, for the Negro 
soldier in every Avar of the Hepublic has 
been valorous, loyal, and self-denying, and 
has abundantly earned a reputation for 
discipline and obedience to every military 

The organization of these companies, fur- 
nished with State arms, authorized and un- 
der the patronage of the government of 
many of the Southern States, created an 



*^esprit d'corps," a fellowship aiul worthy 
ambition conducive to harmony and the 
general welfare. 

Political friction, no doubt, had much to 
do with their displacement. But now the 
Democracy, so long in power, \vith majori- 
ties in many of these St<ites almost cumber- 
some, could well afford to allow and pat- 
tronize these conservators for peace and 
efficient protectors in war, who are ever 
ready to say, as Jehu to Jonahab, thy 
heart right, as my heart is with thine 
heart? If it be, give me thine hand." 

Previous to a Presidential campaign I 
attended a meeting of leading colored Ke- 
publicans at New Orleans, La. It was not 
called as a strictly political conference in 
liie interest of any particular candidate, 
but to exchange views and hear sugges- 
tions relating to pending legislation in Mis- 
sissippi and South Carolina for curtailing, 
if not abolishing Negro suffrage in those 
States. Although the political condition 
of the Negro was then and continues to be 
of such moment that at no intelligent gath- 
ering will it fail to ''bob up" and demand 
a hearing, and this was no exception. While 
the claims of lieed, Morton, Allison, Harri- 
son, and McKinley were freely discussed, 
the suffrage was the leading topic. 

Prominent among the attendants were 
T. T. Fortune, of New York; N W. Cuney 
and E. J. Scott, of Texas; W. A. Pledger 
and H. E. Johnson, of Georgia; P. B. S. 
Pinchback, James Lewis, and J. Madison 



Vance, of Louisiana; Stevens, of Alabama; 
Stevens, of Louisville, Ky., E. Fortune, of 
Florida; C. W. Anderson, of New York, and 

The late N. AV. Cuney, of Texas, was a 
man of commanding presence, forceful and 
e^mphatic as a speaker; honest, tireless and 
♦self-sacrificing. His sterling qualities as a 
leader of men grows brighter as time re- 
cedes from his demise. 

Fearless in enunciation, the timid 
thought him impractical. But there is ever 
this coincerning unpopular truth: Wlien it 
induces honest thought that burns to be 
spoken, you can depend it is not confined 
to a single possessor; it has habitation in 
many hearts. But he alone is the ^4eader 
of leaders,'' who, with Eolion harp or trum- 
pet call summons its worshipers. Among 
matters discussed was the charge that Ne- 
gro delegations were a marketable com- 
modity, with no convictions as to national 
policy, no regard for manly probity, and 
were ever at the beck of the highest pur- 
chaser in the political market. Such a 
sweeping charge is most unjust; but, if 
granted, the admission cuts deeply in the 
opposite directio^n, requiring no analysis to 
discover the preponderance of venality. It 
may happen between the receiver of stolen 
goods and the thief that impulse to steal 
is sometimes weakened by uncertainty of 
market. The Negro delegate has no mar- 
ket to seek; the market is jammed under 
his nose at every turn by immaculate white 



men, often entrusted with larj»e sums to 
be placed '^where it will do the most good/^ 
report to those interested the purchase of 
>segro votes, when sucli was not the fact. 
Satistied they had placed it where it would 
do them the most good, bv allowing it to 
T^est in their pockets, this was not only hard 
on rlie Negro, but mean to chaigi^ him up 
with it, then not let him have it. To say 
there were no coloi'ed men susceptible to 
such advances would be as idle as to say 
there were no white men thereby influ- 
enced; but in either case let us hope it was 
The exception and not the rule. 

Conferences for statement and appeal 
for removing harsh conditions are historic^ 
antedating and creating constitutional gov- 
ernment; for, implanted in the hearts is a 
consciousness of right, however much self- 
ish hate may shut out recognition, or avar- 
ice stifle its egress, and the measure of ac- 
cord granted just claims of the petitioner 
is the moral and Christian status of a com- 

It may be noted here that the character 
01 accord given the Negro in his now severe 
battle for justice and equality before the 
law by the Christian churches and other or- 
ganizations is of a peculiar kind. While 
the benefactions for moral and Christian 
education is to him indispensable, it is not 
the kind most prominent and effectually 
practiced by the Divine Master to dissipate 
Avrong. He forbids the cry of peace when 
there is no peace. He was aggressive and 



distinct. Tlie peculiarity of accord can be 
accounted for in this, that it is so much 
easier for the well-to-do Christian to donate 
to the Negro than by word or pen to de- 
nounce the wrongs to which he is subject. 
Wrong smiles complacently at any mode 
saye direct attack. It is not in silent ac- 
quiescence, but on the forum of agitation 
and denouncement, that reform finds lodg- 
ment, so sadly needed in many of the States 
where he is the yictim of lawlessness and 
murder, his ballot supi>ressed, and denied 
representation. The i)artiality and inde- 
cent haste with which he is tried and al- 
most inyariably sent to the penitentiary, 
\yliere as conyict he receiyes the most bar- 
barous treatment. As a people no one de- 
nies that they are law-abiding; as laborers 
in all the ayenues of industry in which they 
are capable they are faithful and honest: 
as patriots at the incipiency and duration 
of the Goyernment they haye been faithful 
and braye. If, then, in the roll of patriots, 
citizens and producers, they haye main- 
tained character for fidelity, deportment 
and industrj^, surely they can rightly claim 
and demand as citizens of the Republic 
protection from outrage, justice in the 
courts and in eyery way equality before 
the law. They ask for nothing more, and 
would be unworthy to be content with any 

The cry of ^^Negro domination,'' like the 
^^baseless fabric of a Adsion,'' has as little 
foundation. The problem to be solyed is 



not what is or shall be the status of the 
colored man born beneath the flag, but 
whether the forces of Christian civilization, 
the genius and spirit of our Government, 
impartiality in the execution of law, with- 
out let or hindrance, are equal to the per- 
formance of their missions, or are only 
^^sounding brass and tinkling cymbols.'^ 
That is the problem for our white fellow- 
citizens to solve. That which most troubles 
the Negro is has the nation sufficient Chris- 
tianity and regard for justice to allow these 
forces to prevail? The assumption that 
citizens of a common country cannot live 
together in amity is false, denying as it 
does that lawful citizenship is the panoply 
and bulwark of him who attains it, that 
should vindicate and shield him, whether 
he be high or low, at home or abroad, when- 
ever or wherever his civil rights are in- 




Never in the history of conventions was 
there recorded such evidence of unswerving 
fidelity by an equal number to the nominee 
of their choice as that shown at the Na- 
tional Convention in 1880, when General 
Grant's name was before the assembly. Or- 
dinarily when a leader is nominated for 
ballot his supporters are faithful as long as 
his prospects are inviting, but at the first 
evidence of decadence no flock of partridges 
scamper more readily to find cover. For 
years his birthday has been celebrated by 
a reunion of the 806 who, from the first to 
the last of sounding of the 36tli ballot, 
stood with ranks solidly closed and courage 
undaunted. At such a reunion at Philadel- 
phia, in 1893, eighty were present, and with 
speech, reminiscence and good cheer "sl 
feast of reason and a flow of soul,'' time 
sped ^^till the wee sma' hours." Of the col- 
ored delegates, Mr. Ferdinan Havis and 
the writer were present. 

Mr. Havis, of Arkansas, ^^to the manor 
born," deserves more than mere mention 
as the representative of a class in the 

He is a gentleman of fine qualities of 
head ^rnd heart. As a member of the Ar- 



kansas Legislature in 1873 and Clerk of 
Jefferson County for many years, he has 
by honesty as an official and courtesy of 
manner made an unimpeachable record, 
and Avas only dethroned ^^by fraud and 
force and iron will." During his leadership 
of Jefferson County,where three-quartersof 
all voters are colored, he was ever conserva- 
tive and regardful of the views and busi- 
ness interests of the nunu^rically weak but 
financially strong minority of Democrats, 
and by supporting a compromise ticket 
that gave most prominence to the minority 
sought to preserve harnu)ny. lint the ef- 
forts of such men have proved unavailing 
to stem the tide of political usurpation, 
now rampant at many places in the South. 

The greatest numaci^ to re])res(Mitative 
goveriinient is not scdely the disfrancliisc- 
ment of the Kegro, for according with thi^ 
eternal verities there cannot be a continued 
disregard for the ballot in his hand and 
protecti(m for his life, and respect for them 
in the person of the white man. Under the 
genius of our Government the rights of 
claim and exercise are linked and inter- 

This truth stands out in bold relief on 
historic page, and should the future his- 
torian record the dismemberment of the 
Republic, he will indite its decay from the 
commencement of the violation of this 
basic principle of civil government, his be- 
ing but another link in the evidence that 
rapidity of material, without equality of 



moral, advancement is ever attended with 
national decline. 

Meanwhile, it is the duty (which is ever 
the highesit policy) of the Xegro to be pa- 
triotic in his devotion to his country, manly 
in his appeals for justice, and wise by dis- 
carding, by word or action, the fomenting 
of strife; ever oai the alert to close the 
breach by increase of intelligence, moral 
worth and financial progress, and thus in 
great measure dissipa!te ignorance, vice and 
poverty, the abolition of which can be as- 
sisted, but not dispelled, save by a spirit 
of self-sacrilice on his part, subjecting his 
lower nature to the control of the higher. 
With such effort, united to a faith in God 
and 'the American conscience, he will yet 
soften ascerbities, dispel hindrance, and 
stem the tide. 

Philanthrop}^ may assist a man to lii&> 
feet, but cannot keep him there unaided by 
self -effort and an unconquerable will 
power to stand; Avhile relinquishing no part 
of his claim upon his white brother as rec- 
ompense for more than a century of unre- 
quited labor, if with an equal chance for 
work, education and legal protection, he 
cannot not only stand, but advance, exer- 
tion in his behalf is ^^love's labor lost,'' he 
having no rights w^orthy of respect. 

But in no fair mind can there exist doubt 
as to his advancement. A people nine- 
tenths of whom 40 years ago did not legally 
own themselves or property, now hav- 
ing 140,000 ' farms, homes and Indus- 



tries worth |800,000,000; a people 
who, for a oeiitiiiy previous to 
emancipation, were by law forbidden to 
learn to read or write, now have 3,000,000 
children in 27,000 schools, and have re- 
duced their illiteracy 45 per cent., have 
school and church property to the amount 
of §50,000,000, contributing themselves 
thereto §20,000,000; have written 300 
books; have over 250 newspapers issued 
each week. His comparative success as 
merchant, mechanic or other line of indus- 
try which he is permitted to enter, speaks 
for itself, and linally, with per capita val- 
uation of f 75. Yet, in face of such statis- 
tical evidence, there are not wanting the 
Tillnians, Morgans, Burke Cockrans and 
other seers of a Montgomery convention, 
who, because the Negro, trammeled, as he 
is, does not keep step with the immense 
strides of the dominant class in their won- 
drous achievement, the product of a thou- 
sand years of struggle and culture, un- 
blushingly allege that he is relapsing into 
barbarism, and Avith an ingratitude akin to 
crime, are oblivious to the fact that a large 
measure of the intellectual and material 
status of the nation and the cultured abil- 
ity they so balefully use to retard him, are 
the product of a century of his unrequited 

The feeling that the results of the civil 
war have been beneficient, hannonizing 
theory and practice in the autonomy of the 
nation is manifest and conceded. The 



growing unity of the people of our 
country who 40 years ago were en- 
gaged in fraternal strife, should be 
a source of pleasure and welcomed by every 
patriotic heart; for, while bitternes>» can be 
assuaged, and laudable effort made to con- 
form to new conditions, still convictions 
formed and baptized in the flerj^ ordeal of 
war, blood and material loss require forti- 
tude, generosity and pariotism to soften 
their asperity, and much kindly intercourse 
to promote the general welfare. The in- 
creased desire in this direction is evidenced 
at each recurring ^'Decoration Day,'' when 
the Blue and the Gray harmoniously inter- 
mingle, recalling memories and incidents 
of the internal strife. The soldiers of each 
vieing in reciprocity, as with ^'a union of 
hearts and a union of hands'' with fragrant 
flowers they bedeck historic sod. 

But will the nation remember that after 
all that can be said or written, of heroic 
circumstance of war, or in praise of its par- 
ticipants, all these bereft of humanity and 
justice to the weak, fail to constitute an 
enduring State, for eternal and immutable 
is the decree that ^^righteousness exalteth a 
nation." Eelative to this intermingling of 
former foes, whatever our estimate of the 
results of human action may be, we cannot 
unerringly divine impurity of motive; hence 
respect for honest conviction must be the 
prelude to that unity of patriotism which 
is ever the safeguard to the integrity of a 



The spirit that impelled contributions for 
the erection of the Confederate monuments 
in different sections of our country from 
donors, irrespective of former affiliation, 
has been benign in its influence. In 1897 
the Hon J. N. Smithea instituted a move- 
ment for such a memorial in Little Rock, 
Ark., stipulating that responses should be 
limited to one dollar. Impressed that our 
race should not be indifferent to such an 
appeal, I transmitted the following: 

J. N. Smithea, Editor ^^Gazette,'^ 
Little Rock, Ark.: 
I notice your effort to erect a monument 
to the Confederate dead. A third of a cen- 
tury has elapsed since the civil war. Con- 
viction in the minds of the participants on 
either side as to who was right and who 
was wrong is as firmly fixed as the eternal 
hills. Given, that a view of events leading 
up to that fraternal strife, the bravery of 
the one or heroic conduct of the other from 
standpoints necessarily different will never 
find mutual ground for justification, it 
seems the mission of patriotism and na- 
tional unity to give the hand of welcome 
to every effort that will unite us in all that 
will promote the commo'n glory of the Re- 
public. As one of the representatives of 
a race, especially in this southland, I cheer- 
fully subscribe my dollar to the fund, feel- 
ing that the Negro should joyfully hail 
every effort to soften animosities which are 
the outgrowth of a struggle in which, un- 
Avittingly, he was so important a factor. 

Chairman Republican State Central Committee of (reorgia. 

Born near Athens forty-five years ago— Has been a delegate to every National Republican 
Convention for the last twenty-five years— A leader trusted and tried. 


No one should be more anxious to cement 
the friendly and good offices of our more 
favored fellow-citizens, from whom we are 
receiving the largest share of our educa- 
tional and material assistance, so greatly 
needed to bring us up to the full measure 
of a noble citizenship. By the providence 
of God we are here, and are here to stay. 
We are producers of Avealth and the con- 
servators of peace. Therefore, encourage 
us by the exercise of justice and magnanim- 
ity, that we can saj' to you, as Kuth to 
Naomi in Holy Writ: ^^Entreat me not to 
leave thee, or to return from folloAving af- 
ter thee, for whither thou goest I will go; 
and where thou lodgest I will lodge; thy 
people shall be my people, and thy Grod 
my God; where thou diest will I die, and 
there will I be buried ; the Lord do so to me 
and more also, if aught but death part thee 
and me.'' 

Very truly yours, etc.. 

Monuments are the mute mile stones, the 
connecting links between a finished effort, 
and an inspiration for continued struggle. 
But monuments are not created after the 
death of those they commemorate, al- 
though they may seem to be; they are but 
memorials of the structure already built, 
the solidit}^ of whose base and symmetry of 
whose lines were projected and fashioned 
by intensity of conviction and the unswerv- 
ing courage of their prototypes in amelio- 
rating conditions while they lived. Bereft 



of this, "monuments themselves memorials 

Having administered the office of Regis- 
ter of United States Jand hj appointments 
from Presidents Hayes and Arthur, my last 
service in the Interior Department was un- 
der an appointment from President Harri- 
son, who, in 1889, placed me as Receiver of 
Public Moneys at Little Rock, Ark., Land 
District. It was during this term that the 
Department ordered and appointed Special 
Commissioners to conduct the sale of un- 
sold lots on the Hot Springs Reservation 
at auction. As one of the Commissioners 
and Receiver of Public Moneys, I was re- 
quired and gave a qualified bond for |100,- 
000 for the faithful i)erformance of the 
trust, and with Register Raleigh proceeded 
and discharged the duties thereto. Harri- 
son's term ended a career of twelve years 
in the land office. If in retrospective mo- 
ments amid the many beneficent things you 
might have done, but left undone, you 
catch here and there glimpses of unselfish 
ambition or benefit you have conferred, it 
does much to abate regret, for the recollec- 
tion to me is a source of pleasure that dur- 
ing those terms by personal convass and 
unofficial publication I contributed in in- 
ducing thousands of immigrants and others 
to homestead the virgin soil of ArkansaSj 
who have now good homes, comprising 40, 
80 or 160 acres of land, besides assisting 
them in establishing schools for their chil- 




In October, 1897, hj telegrams from my 
friends, Xatlianiel McKay and Dr. Purvis, 
of A^'asliington, I). C, I was informed that 
T had been appointed United States Consul 
for the island of Madagascar. 

It was a surprise; for, while truth com- 
pels the admission that I was not averse 
to ^^being taken in and done for,-' Madagas- 
car had not come within my purview; its 
distance had not ^^lent enchantment to the 
view.'' I gave it some thought, but could 
not perceive that I had been so annoyingiy 
persistent to merit a resj)onse from the 
President, not unlike that given by Mr. 
Blaine to one Mr. Tite Barnacle, who was 
willing to compromise oin a foreign appoint- 
ment. ^^Certainly,'' was the reph^; the^^for- 
eigner the better.'" I concluded, fiowever, 
that the bard may have been right when 
he wrote ^^There is a destiny that shapes 
our ends," for it often happens that what 
a man desires is just what he ought not to 
have; and whether what he gets is to be 
beneficial depends largely upon its use. 

I was summoned to Washington, and af- 
ter a conference received my^ commission, 
returned to Little Rock to prepare for de- 
parture to my post, ^"10,000 miles away." 



I received a warm <>reetii)j^ and a ^^jollr 
send-off^' at a banquet oiven me on Christ- 
mas eve hy many friends. To name a few 
of the devoted would be invidious to the 
many. It will suffice to say I felt grateful 
and touched by the many expressions, 
which added testimony to their valued ap- 
preciation. Arriving at New York I was 
met by Mr. W. H. Hunt, who liad applied 
and been highly commended for the posi- 
tion of clerk to the consulate, and wiio, af- 
ter a year's faithful ser\dce, in pursuance 
of my recommendation, was appointed 
Vice-Gonsul, and is now Consul. 

This, my appointment as Consul to Tama- 
tave, severs a decade's connection as ^'Sec- 
retary of the Republican State Central 
Committee,'' and esi)ecially Avith its Chair- 
man, Mr. Henry Cooper, who, indefatigable 
as a worker, genial, but positive in his con- 
victions, has managed the machinery of the 
party with but little friction. The remem- 
brance of the partiality, honors and kind- 
ness of which I have been a recipient from 
members of the party, irrespective of ^^race 
or previous condition," will be ever bright 
and cheery. 

On Januarj^, 1, 1898, we embarked on the 
French steamship Champagne, and arrived 
at Havre on the 9th, and took train for 
Paris. The cars either for comfort or re- 
tirement in no Avay equal ours, eight in a 
compartment, sitting omnibus fashion, face 
to face. We rolled on to the Capital, pass- 
ing many fine villas, the product of French 



architecture. Everywhere one is impressed 
with the national peculiarities — the houses, 
the streets, modes of conveyance and trans- 
portation. Compactness, neatness, order 
and precision pervades their every under- 
taking; but for celerity and despatch of 
business they were painful to encounter or 
behold, for it ill accords with the American 
mode. A ride of fours hours and we reach 
I'aris. At the depot the baggage is placed 
on long tables awaiting examination by 
custom-house officers. Mine was passed 
without. Took cab for *'lIotel de Hinda,'' 
exquisitely furnished and centrally located, 
liaving easy access to places of note. 

This being the most disagreeable time of 
year, a fire in the rooms was necessary, for 
outside everywhere was a damp, penetrat- 
ing air, remaining here 15 days with the 
sight of the sun but once. 

The next day after my arrival I called on 
the American Ambassador, Mr. Porter, in 
relation to ]ny exequator, to be issued by 
the French Government. It is a recogni- 
tion of status, and a formal permit from 
one nation to another to allow their re- 
spective Consuls to exercise the duties ap- 
pertaining thereto and a guarantee of pro- 
tection in their performance. Had a very 
cordial reception from Mr. J. E. Gowdy, our 
Consul at Paris. Visited the Paris office 
of the New York Herald, where many files 
of American and European papers can be 
perused. A visit to the "Louvre'' is a joy 
for the layman, as for the connoisseur, gal- 




leries a mile or more in leii<»tli liini}^ with 
paintings grand in imagery and beauty of 
old masters, Frencli and Italian, centuries 
old. Many showed the silent, slow and im- 
pressive stei)S of age. But ^^you may break, 
you may scatter the vase if you will, tln^ 
scent of the roses will linger tliere still," for 
on shrunken canvas or from lust(M' dimmed 
was imperial tone of materializ(Ml concc^j)- 
tion ^^not born to die.'' 

Among the guests of lh(^ holi^l were two 
gentlemen, one an American capitalist, the 
(•tlier a German merchant from Berlin, tin* 
latter speaking French like a native. We 
became pleasant com])ani()ns, and conclud- 
ed on Sunday evening to go to the ^'Follies 
Bergere'' — in American parlance a variety 

Ten minutes' drive* biought us to a very 
large building, lighted as if by sunlight, 
where a hundred tinely-dresscnl ukmi and 
women crowded for entrance. Outside* of 
what we tei*ni pit and dress circh* is a i)ar- 
tition, three or four feet high, dividing 
them from a promenade ten or fifteen feet 
wide. You can stand or sit in this prom- 
enade, and see the performance. Our 
friends suggested this plan, as we could see 
and hear more of Parisian peculiarities. 
Here many very beautiful women prome- 
naded. They had evidently been touched 
by artists, for their make-up was superb. 
But I could not but think of the refrain of 
a song we have all heard, ^^Oh, but what 
a difference in the morning.'' They had 



sweet, prett}^ sayings, clothed in all the 
softness of moduhition and earnestness of 
gesture of the French people. My Amer- 
ican friend, like myself, was Frenchless, 
and as a consequence invulnerable. Tlie 
appearance of the occupants of the front 
row of seats very forcibly reminded me of 
a similar locality at the Capital Theater in 
the City of Koses, on similar occasions, 
where many of my old friends with gaze in- 
tent loved to congregate. The performance 
was spectacuhir and acrobatic, with usual 
evolutions, with more ''aban(h)n'' and very 
artistic. Passing through the cafe, where 
hnndreds of finely-dressed men and women 
were sitting at tabU^s (juietly talking, 
smoking and drinking wine or coffee, we 
passed to the street. 

There is much to delight in a walk 
through the Tulleries and ^^Palace de la 
Concord.-' These public scpiares have an 
acreage of several hundred, and are 
adorned with flowing fountains and mar- 
velous statnary. Passing through the Tul- 
leries brings you to the ^^Dome de Inva- 
lids,'' in which is Napoleon's tomb. The 
building and dome is of the most exquisite 
architecture. Upon entry everywhere your 
gaze is confronted by stately columns of 
Italian marble arches, statuary, flags of 
many varieties, captured by Napoleon from 
his enemies on many battlefields, besides 
other trophies of war. 

As you look down a circular pit twenty 
feet deep and forty feet wide, enclosed by 



a balustrade of Italian marble, you see the 
sarcophagus, iu which is inclosed all that 
was mortal of the great Xapoleon. The 
mosaic payement at the bottom of the pit 
represents a wreath of laurels; on it rests 
the sarcophagus, consisting of a single 
block, highly polished, of reddish brown 
granite, fourteen feet high, thirteen long 
and seyen \yide, brought from Finland at 
a cost of 125,000. Aboye rises a lofty dome 
IGO feet high, diyided into t\yo sections, one 
of t^^'elye compartments, each containing a 
figure of one of the twelye apostles; the 
other representing St. Louis offering to 
Christ the sword with Ayhicli to yanquish 
his enemies. 

While in Paris I yisited Mrs. Mason, 
widow of James Mason, deceased. Mr. Ma- 
son was formerly a member of the Arkan- 
sas Senate and Sherilf of Chicot County. 
It will be remembered by old residents that 
the death of Mason's father, an old bache- 
lor and rich planter, who died intestate,^ 
caused a suit at law of great interest and 
importance. It was an exciting trial, as 
many thousands of dollars were at stake 
in the issue. The fatherly care he had eyer 
eyinced for the education of his children 
(James haying been educated in Prance 
and Martha at a Northern college); the so- 
licitude and unfailing recognition, the 
many instances of which he had designated 
them as direct heirs, and other eyidence, 
collateral and comyincing, were ayailing. 
They receiyed a jury award. 

Recorder of Deeds for District of Columbia. 

Born at Torboro, S. C, May, 1857--Entered Howard Universitv— Elected Re- 
corder of Deeds of Edj^pcombe Croimty, S. C. in 1880 and 1882— lyate 
Collector of the Port at Willmington, S. C— Christian and 
Progressive in the Chnrch — Eminent and Elo- 
quent, in the State. 


An appeal to the Supreme Court of the 
United States was taken, which dragged 
its weary way for a number of j^ears, but 
resulted in confirming the decision of the 
lower court. Mi^s. Mason was for many 
years, through the patronage and kindness 
of Senator Garland and other members of 
Congress from Arkamsas, a clerk in the 
Land Oftice at Washington. I found Mrs. 
Mason living in well-appointed apartments 
with her daugliter, an artistic painter of 
some note, with studio adjoining, where I 
was shown many beautiful productions of 
her bj;*ush. I was conversant with many in- 
stances in the North where Southern plant- 
ers had brought their colored families to be 
educated, purchasing and giving them 
property for settlement and sustenaince, es- 
pecially that their girls might escape the 
environments which undoubtedly awaited 
them at the South. These were in fine and 
valuable contradistinction to many cases 
similarly related, where they were sold on 
the auction block to the highest bidder. 
But in all candor it cannot but be supposed 
that in many instances the sale of the 
planter's own flesh and blood was involun- 
tary. High living, neglect of the compara- 
tive relation of resource and expenditure, 
gambling for big stakes on steamboat and 
at Northern watering places, brought the 
evil day with attending results to the 
^^chatteP' subject to the baneful caprice of 
unrestrained libert3\ 

On the 23d of Jamuary, 1898, I was tak- 
ing my leave of Paris to meet my steamer 



at Marseilles for a 20-day voyage for Mad- 
agascar. My stay at the hotel had been 
pleasant, and I supposed had received all 
necessary attention from the servants that 
occasion demanded; but in character it had 
been individual. Now it was united, for in 
doorway and on staircase they were (like 
Tennyson's cannon) servants ^^to the right 
of me and servants to the left of me,'' smil- 
ing and gracious. One, of whom I had no 
recollection of having previously seen, ap- 
proached me with an obeisance decidedly 
French to remind me that he was the ^^bag- 
gage man" and attended to it when I ar- 
rived. I replied, ^^You are not the man who 
took up my baggage." '^No," he said; ^^I am 
the man who looked after the man who 
Avatched the man who did take it up." 
^'Oh!" I said; and then remembering that 
he and 1 had much in common, his English 
and my French being twins, I conceded his 
claim, ^^tipped" others that impeded my 
exit, and made hasty retreat. 

Leaving Paris at 2:30 P. M., at 2 in the 
morning we reached Lyons, stopping 25 
minutes for coffee and refreshments, which 
reached a long-felt want, arriving at Ho- 
tel de Louvre et de la Paix, at Marseilles, 
three hours later. Paris is prolific in 
names of its hotels, but this was commen- 
surate in luxury and first class in every 
I>articular, very large, the finest in Mar- 
seilles and said to be unsurpassed in 
I'rance. It is approached by a hall-way 
fifty feet long from Eue Canebrian (the 



street), wliicli leads you into an oval-shaped 
court 100 by 200 feet. Around this court 
iu uiclies are finely-sculptured statuary, 
I^aintings and choice fiowers in porcelain 
vases. Out of this court you are conducted 
into the hotel proper. Spacious stairways 
of Italian marble, the tread of which cov- 
ered Avith Turkish carpets, leads you to the 
interior. The court in the inner center of 
the hotel rises to a height of five or six 
stories, and is covered by parti-colored 
glass, which emits a soft and pleasing tint 
on all below. The dining room was ''a thing 
of beauty,'' and the menu '^a jo^' forever.'' 
The adornments of the room would well 
befit a palace. Oh, that I had the tongue 
of an orator or the ^en of a veadj writer, 
to fitly describe! Took breakfast and then 
a stroll along the principal streets of the 
city and the wharves of the Mediterranean. 
The city resembled a bee hive; the houses 
and streets are literall.y crowded with men 
and women of all nationalities and cos- 

Wending ou^r waj^ to ^^Notre Dame," a 
magnificent church on a hill, one thousand 
feet above the level of the city, entirely 
overlooking it, while the Mediterranean 
lies sparkling in the distance directly be- 
low. On the top of the dome of this edi- 
fice is a figure encased in gold, representing 
^'Iloly Mary" with the Christ in her arms. 
A gallery surrounds the church, from 
which the view is grand and imposing. As- 
cent and descent can be made by an eleva- 



On the 25tli of January we embarked on 
board our ship, the '^Pie Ho/' and found 
state room comfortable for the k)ngest voy- 
age of our travel. The view as we pass out 
of the harbor of Marseilles is quite pictur- 
esque, with its quaint old buildings, moun- 
tainous surroundings, its medley of ships, 
soldiers and saik)rs of every nation, differ- 
ing in uniform and costume. Here, as I 
suppose it is everywhere where love and 
friendship dwell, hundrcMls had assiMubhMl 
at docks and quays and other points of van- 
tage to waive hands and handkerchiefs of 
a loving farewell. 1 thought of my dear 
daughter on the wharf at New York and 
her anxious gaze until we Avere lost in tlu* 
distance. This ship, the ''Pie Ho," of a 
French line, is said to be old, but staunch, 
comfortable and giving good service; but a 
failure in that particular the want of which 
retards the success of many ])e()i)le of whom 
it could be truthfully said by Cliristian and 
moralist that they Avere good and reliabh\ 
The ''Pie Ho'' is not swift, but if she retains 
the commendation that oft accompanies 
slowness, that of being sure, we should be 
content. But age has its limits, and haj)])y 
should all be who safely and honorably 
round up the voyage of life. 

We are now in full view of Mount Strom- 
bol in the Mediterranean, a volcano in full 
blast, emitting fire and clouds of smoke. 
Yesterday we entered the Ionian Sea; to- 
day we have land on either side, Sicily on 
our right and Italy on our left, with a good 



A'iew of ils coast lines; cities, towns, cul- 
tivated tields and trains in motion. At 2 
P. M. January 30 we see Uermot Light- 
house, and at 3 reach Port Said. The Khe- 
dive's dominion, a Government and busi- 
ness point, with many consular residences. 
It was the first sight of the ^^old flag'' since 
leaving Marseilles. It is a new baptism of 
patriotism for one to see the national ban- 
ner so far from home, and impromptu he 
.sings, "'long may it wave,-' for ^Svith all thy 
faults I love thee still.-' 

We anchored out in the bay, and with 
^mall boats v ent ashore. Port Said is quite 
cosmopolitan both in its business and resi- 
idence features. Nearly every nationality 
has its representative in trade, but numer- 
ically the unspeakable Turk is very much 
in evidence. On landing one of the guards, 
numerous and whose charges are fixed by 
law, took us in charge to show us the city. 
The streets generally were unimproved and 
irregular, bothin architecture and location. 
Through several dingy .and untidy streets 
he led us to the public park, which made 
considerable pretension to order and neat- 
ness. The turban, the wrap, the sandals 
and other Oriental costumes, which made 
up the dress, were not more varied than 
the complexion of the people, but their 
features were generally fine-cut. A marble 
bust of De Lesseps, the contractor of the 
Suez Canal, which we shall soon enter, has 
a prominent place. 

Through several streets, monotonous for 
disorder and uncleanliness, we reached the 



^^Mosque,'- the Mahomedaii place of wor- 
ship. In the minaret high up on the tower 
stood an olficer awaiting the hour to lower 
the flag as a signal to all Musselmen that 
they could eat, the day being one of their 
fast days. In all the streets through which 
we passed could be seen groups of the faith- 
ful with anxious look toward the minaret 
to catch the flrst downward movement of 
the flag. It came at last, and with it the 
shouting and running of the crowds to 
booths and stands for eating purposes that 
lined the sidewalks. We approaclied tlie 
^^Mosque'' with all the solemnity possible 
for hypocritical heretics to assume, and 
were met at the door by a grave and rev- 
erent sire, who interviewed the guidi\ 

We had been told that we avouUI have to 
take oft' our shoes (just here we noted the 
same pliancy observable in many of our 
own denomination when there is prospect 
of getting the aluiighty dollar). In some 
way the matter was c(mipromised by put- 
ting on over our shoes large sandals made 
of straw. After paying 50 centimes each 
(equal to 10 cents in our currency), we en- 
tered a large room without furniture or 
other adornment, with stone floor, some 
matting, upon which a number of worship- 
ers Avere kneeling and supplicating ^^Al- 
lah,'' their supreme being. There was an 
earnestness that bespoke sincerity, and an 
all-abiding faith. I could but think how 
few of us who would criticise are true to 
the creed we profess. 



In a kind of lavatory adjoining could be 
seen men washing their feet and doing- 
oddities unmentionable preparatory to 

After wandering about the building for 
some time I was accosted by one of the at- 
tendants, and Avas made to understand that 
one of my feet aa as uncovered. I had lost 
one of my sandals. I was rather uneasy 
for a while, not knowing what they might 
do with that unholy foot that had dese- 
crated the temple. The guide found it, 
however, and ^^Kichard was himself again.'^ 
After leaving the ^^Mosque-' the guide es- 
corted us ship ward through the business 
portion of the city, neat and cleanly, with 
hotels and stores creditable to a metropolis. 
But for beggars of unrivaled persistency I 
commend you to Port Said, for with a pitia- 
bleness, sincere or assumed, they dog your 
every footstep. 

At the southern part of the city is a large 
cemetery, having stones with many hiero- 
glyphics and inscriptions denoting the for- 
mer locality, character and virtues of the 
dead. With the scholar are interred copies 
of his literary productions; with the sol- 
dier, his sword; with the statesman, a roll 
of his achievements for the good of the 
state, for presentation to ^^Allah.'' 




The passage tlirovigli the Suez Canal was 
^iomewhat monotonous, but a continued re- 
minder of bible history. On either side as 
far as the ej^e could reach the desert spread 
out its sandy atoms glistening in the sun. 

Out of the canal we are in the Gulf of 
Suez, and in a few hours in the Red Sea, an 
interesting locality in ancient history. It 
is there we learn that Pharaoh and liis 
hosts met their Waterloo (Avith the accent 
on the Avater) in the pursuit of the children 
of Israel. But here we find conflicting 
opinions. Some say that Pharaoh, arriving 
at the bank and seeing the impossibility of 
overtaking them, tu^rned and retired; oth- 
ers, that there were, shoal places in those 
far-away days where niij one could cross; 
others, that they crossed on flats very like 
the ordinarj^ modern mortal. But I do not 
<"iccept this attempt to question tlie ortlio- 
dox version, but will verify it as far as my 
observation will admit. The sea was likely 
red in those days, and has very properly 
retained its name on account of the locality 
being red-hot at times, or, perhaps, chame- 
leon like, changes its color. This morning, 
however, it is a deep blue. As to Pharaoh 
and his hosts getting drowned, there can- 



not be doubt, if it was in its present condi- 
tion and they attempted to cross on foot. 

But this we do know, that the success of 
the ^^Children of IsraeP' in not being "over- 
taken'' has been the prototype of father to 
son in every effort to do so from that day 
to the present. There is a serious view, 
hoAvever. Here the sea, sky and neighbor- 
hood of Jerusalem, pyramids, monuments 
and sacred traditions all conspire to have 
a solemn and awe-inspiring effect. Thous- 
ands of generations of men have lived and 
moved in the activities that engage 
modern humanity, but have passed like 
fleeting shadows, leaving only these senti- 
nels as perpetual reminders. While the 
"Eed Sea'' sings in murmuring cadence 
that "men may come, and men may go, but 
I go on forever," doubly impressing us that 

"So the multitude goes, like the flower or 

That wither away to let others succeed; 
So the multitude comes, even those we be- 

To repeat every tale that has often been 

But a truce to moralizing on the past. 

The children of Israel seem to have made 
and kept their record as "passengers." I 
was interested in the passage of a child of 
Ham. 1 am somewhat deficient in Bible 
historj^, and am without knowledge of the 
Avhereabouts of Ham's children at that 



time, or whether they had ^^crossing'^ to do; 
but if they possessed the proverbial char- 
acter imputed to some of their offspring, 
antipathy to water, especially for lavatory 
purposes, I am of the opinion they took no 
desperate chances, ^^content to bear the ills 
thev had than fly to those they knew not 
of J' 

Passing Hurich Island, a British posses- 
sion, and having had a very pleasant pas- 
sage on the Red Sea, we arrive at Djiboute, 
Abyssinia, the terminus of King Menelik's 
domain, the scenes of recent conflict be- 
tween Italy and the King's forces, the ^^un- 
pleasantness'^ resulting unprofitably to the 
Italians. There were landed from the ship 
many boxes of rifles and ammunition for 
the King's governor, who resides here. Dur- 
ing the few hours we remained there, we 
were interested in and enjoyed the gather- 
ing of ten or fifteen native boys around the 
ship diving for centimes or francs thrown 
by the passengers, their dexterity as divers, 
securing every pennj', was as clever as gro- 
tesque. They remained in the water six or 
<?ight hours during the ship's stay. A few 
hours brought us to Aden, a very strongly 
fortified appendage to the British Empire 
^t the south end of the Bed Sea. For arma- 
ment and strategical locality it is the 
Gibraltar of the southern seas. 

The rivalry of native boatmen for pas- 
sengers and luggage to take ashore was 
appalling. When I say it surpassed a third 
ward political meeting in ^^ye olden titnes" 



in Little Eock 1 faintly describe it. Sunday 
morning; once more on the waj^; one more 
stop, and then to Tamatave, our destina- 

Looking this beautiful morning on the 
foam-crest waves as they roll in sportive 
emulation, with a cloudless sky coming 
down on every side to kiss the horizon, 
shutting out human vision of all else be- 
yond, one could not fail to be impressed 
with tlie greatness, the omnipotence of the 
Creator. This being but a speck of that 
vast whole, comprising the celestial and 
terrestrial aggregation, he, indeed, who re- 
gards this sublime workmanship as the 
product of chance and not that of a super- 
human architect and law-giver, by Whom 
every atom of nature is controlled, is more 
to be pitied than condemned. 

To conclude our voyage, we have six or 
seven days of ^'innocuous desuetude.'' That 
is what I believe President Cleveland des- 
ignated a monotonous and unprofitable 
period. I am not certain, however, and one 
should be careful in quoting great authors. 

We pass the Gulf of Aden and enter the 
Indian Ocean, Kem Huflfien Island to the 
right, and now appears the eastern coast 
lines of the continent of Africa. On that 
continent, I learn, lies the ashes of my fore- 
fathers. Peace abide with them, and may 
peace crowned with justice come to such 
of their descendants as are still the vic- 
tims of dishonesty and inhumanity by en- 
lightened and professedly Christian na- 



Travel by sea loses in interest as you re- 
cede or are midway between distant points. 
You somehow feel yourself located in the 
neighborhood of ^'Mahomet's coffin/' and 
have a sort of a ^^don't-care-a-continentaP' 
atmosphere surrounding you, with nothing 
to arrest attention save the usual incidents 
of ocean voyage, with no land in sight. The 
constitutional promenade on deck before 
and after meals, with the French etiquette 
of raising your hat or cap as you pass; 
reading or lounging on sofas or reclining 
chairs; relating individual expei^ences of 
life or travel; criticising the conduct of oth- 
ers than yourselves; the welcome sound of 
the bell that calls you to meals; the last 
view of the sun as it bids you ^^good-bye,'' 
with its ineffectual ra,ys, and gently sinks 
beneath the horizon; the rising of the 
moon, shedding its sheen of spark- 
ling light on the dancing waves; re- 
tirement to your couch to listen awhile to 
the heavy breathing, and feel the pulse- 
beat of the iron monitor as it speeds you 
onward; flnallj^ to sleep, to dream of loved 
ones at home. 

The suavity of the French is in notable 
contrast with the more taciturn deport- 
ment of the English; amiable contact has 
much to do with softening the asperities 
of life. 

We are now crossing the heretofore 
much-dreaded equator — weather splendid, 
light, cloth suit not uncomfortable, but we 
are at sea and not on land. The forward 



deck is today given up to the sports of the 
sailors (the custom when crossing the line), 
and is now the center of attraction — run- 
ning ^^obstacle races,"' the two competitors 
getting under, and from under a canvas- 
sheet held to the deck by a number of their 
fellows, and then running for the goal, 
picking up potatoes as they ran. After- 
wards, with bucket of paste and paint- 
brush, lathering head and face, shaving 
with a large wooden razor the unlucky 
competitoi*^ — were a part of the amuse- 
ments tiiey imposed on ^'Old Father Tinie.'^ 
Arrived at Diego Suarez, on the north- 
ern port of Madagascar, a French naval 
station, having a land-locked harbor, pro- 
viding good shelter and anchorage. The 
town is located on a plateau overlooking 
tlie bay. Many oflficei^s disembai-ked and 
a large amount of freiglit discharged. The 
resident population consisted of a medley 
from all eastern nations. Anchored a mile 
off and in vSmall boats, and after 20 min- 
utes' rowang we were landed. A dozen 
stores, barracks and the hospital on the op- 
posite side of the bay Avere the only objects 
of interest. The large amount of freight 
discharged indicated it to be a pi ominent 
distributing point for the interior. Leav- 
ing Diego and running down the eastern 
coast with land in view, mountainous and 
apparently sterile, we reach Tamatave and 
anchor in the bay. 




The ship Avas soon boarded by a uiessen- 
j;er from Mr. AVetter, the outgoing Amer- 
ican Consul at Madagascar, and I was 
piloted ashore. The view of Tamatave 
from the ship was not prepossessing, 
and my walk through the city 
to the liotel was not inspiring. The 
attempt to dignify the six or eight feet 
wide alleys (which were the main arteries 
for travel) as avenues or streets, semed 
ludicrous, and the filthy condition, the ab- 
sence of all sanitary regulations in a prov- 
ince pretending a civilized administration, 
was to me a revelation. The natural se- 
quence of such neglect was the visitation 
of the ^^Bubonic plague'' a few months af- 
ter my arrival and an immense death-rate. 
The alarm proved a conservator for the 
living, for the burning of the effected dis- 
tricts, widening the streets and enforce- 
ment of sanitary rules have tended to les- 
sen its virulence, although it has been 
yearly in its visitations; for while foul sur- 
roundings are recog;nized as hot-beds for 
the propagation of the germs of this pest, 
recent experience has demonstrated that 
while cleanliness and rigid sanitary meas- 
ures are less inviting, they are not positive 
barriers to its approach and dire effect. 
The ^^terror" originally supposed to be in- 
digenous only to India, Egypt, and China, 
and so domestic in its habits as to confine 
its ravages to few precincts, now stalks 
forth as on a world mission — to Mauritius 
in Indian Ocean, to Japan, Brazil, Austra- 



lia, Honolulu, and last and not least, in- 
teresting from an American point of view, 
are the stealtln^ footsteps of the unwel- 
come guest in the city of San Francisco, 
Cal. ^'While medical information relating 
to the plague is still less definite and ex- 
tensive than it should be,^' says an eminent 
physician, "it is now well demonstrated 
that the disease depends upon a specitic 

It may be communicated from one per- 
son to another through expectoration, ooz- 
ings from the mouth of dying persons, or 
through the excretions of the body. ^^The 
fears it inspires are Avell groundecl, for the 
recoveries in a case of severe epidemics are 
onlj^ ten per cent. Of 12G cases reported 
from Manila from January 20 to March 30, 
1900, 112 cases resulted fatally. In India, 
where the plague has been the most severe, 
the deaths from this cause have a\':eraged 
5,000 a week of recent years, a considerable 
amount of study has been devoted to the 
various phases of the plague, by physicians 
in Europe and the East especially, and a 
number have given their lives to the cause 
of medical science in attempts to find some 
method of successfully combating it. It 
is needless to say that no specific has as 
yet been discovered in its treatment, and 
ordinary curative measures have but little 
effect on its course* 

In Chinatown, San Francisco, where it 
made its appearance, a rigid "cordon sani- 
taire'' was established, and all outer inter- 



course prohibited. It is not believed that 
conditions are invitin<> in North America, 
althonj^h ^^tlie wisl] may be father to the 

The followinj* bi-ief (expression relative 
to Mada{;ascar and comment on Negro 
status in the folkiwing lett(M- to the '^Col- American/' ])ublislHMl i]i \\ iisliing ton 
City, may be in phice: 

Tamatave, Madagascar, Aug. 5, 11)0(1. 

Dear FricMid Cooper: I hav(^ your favor 
June 14th hist, in which you say you would 
like to have a line from me, that you ''may 
let the friends over here know what you 
are doing." AW^ll, here it is, line ui)on line, 
if not precept, etc. 1 am '^still (h)iiig busi- 
ness at the same old stand," and doubt if 
1 have anything to say regarding this ''far- 
away post" that would ])articnlarly inter- 
est your readers, engrossed as 1 perceive 
they are in domestic phases and in the 
alignment of our recent aciiuisitions. 

Kegarding the physical development or 
inoral progress of Madagascar, as you 
know it is now a French province, with a 
(xovernor General and staff, all appointees 
from France. The Government is doing 
considerable to open up the country by 
means of telegraphs, railroads, turnpikes 
and canals. At Paris they recently voted 
sixty millions francs (12 million dollars) 
for a railroad from here to Tananarivo^ 
the capital, 200 miles from here, over a 
mountainous and broken country. The cap- 



ital is situated on a plateau 5,000 feet 
above sea level, with a climate cool and 
bracing. Here at Tamatave a fireplace or 
beating stove in a house are unknown ap- 
pendages. The Hovas for a long period 
were the rulers previous to the conquest 
and occupation h\ the French, who by 
diplomacy — ^^force and iron will'' — the 
means usually adopted by the strong when 
a coveted prize looms in the distance, add- 
ed an immense territory to their colonial 
possessions. But perhai)s in the interest 
of civilization the change is not to be de- 
plored. The Hovas were a superior class 
of Madagascan people the rulers being 
men of education and ability, but not 
equal in (luality or (juantity to cope with 
the energy, wealth and military prowess of 
a power like France. 

The mental and physical conditions of 
the great bulk of the natives were not, and 
are not, inviting; they were held by a mild 
system of slavery, a system that in sub- 
stance still exists under French rule as to 
forced labor on public works. The sever- 
ity of tasks and bad rum are said by a 
friendly society at Paris in its protest ^^to 
be fast decimating their number.^- The 
French Government, however, are estab- 
lishing an extension of schools for the na- 
tives, where industrial training will be the 
marked feature, and which on yesterday, 
the occasion being an official visit the Gov- 
ernor was pleased to pay me, I took pains 
to extol; as you know industrial training 



is my pet. The General wisely remarking, 
''we wish first to place the present gen- 
eration in a position to earn more money, 
so they will be able to give their offspring 
a higher education if they wish." The 
English, Norwegians from America, the 
Friends and other missions, are doing 
something for their educational and moral 
progress, but the appliances are meager 
compared with the herculean task that 
awaits them. 

There is, however, this difference in the 
problem here. There are colored men oc- 
cupying places of prominence as officials, 
as tellers in banks, clerks in counting- 
houses and merchant stores. Here it is 
condition, and not color, wealth and posi- 
tion, tlie ^^open sesame.-' On social occa 
sions the brother in bhick is in evidence, 
without s])ecial notice of the fact, and, 
strangest of it all, on the following day the 
sun and other heavenly bodies seem to 
stand or revolve in their accustomed or- 
bits. My health has been good, although 
the bubonic pest, periodical in its visita- 
tions, has been alarming in the suddenness 
of its destruction of life. In the spring it 
is again expected to alight Avithout ^Hieal- 
ing in its wings.'' But I will not longer 
dwell on Madagascan peculiarities, many 
of which, as elsewhere, are not chastening. 
What I am interested in, and want to know 
about is, how you are getting on with the 
^^old grudge?" If I judge correctly from 
the journals that reach me, that during my 



near three gears' absence, its status, un- 
like renowned grape-juice, has neither dis- 
sipated or improved by lapse of time, and 
that lynching and disfranchisement still 
have the right of way. 

The expansion of our sovereignty is 
fraught with complications, and onerous 
duties from the statesman, the zeal of the 
liumanitarian, and of reformers and 
friends of equitable government, un- 
flinching determination are required, 
that kindness and justice sluiU 
be ceded to the people thereof. But 
is the prospect for the dissemination or as- 
cendanc}^ of these virtues either bright or 
promising? If the exercise and enjoyments 
of these attributes are not granted to mil- 
lions of the American household, is it rea- 
sonable to expect they Avill dominate 
abroad? There is reason for apprehension 
that our cousins in the East will find little 
change of despotic tendencies amid the 
rank and file of American adventurers. 
The philosophy of our system of govern- 
ment seems out of balance. Cicero wrote 
^^that excessive liberty leads both nations 
and individuals into excessive slaver5^'' 

But amid the lights and shadows that 
environ the Negro, he is neither unde- 
serving of the assistance rendered, and in- 
dispensable for educational development, 
which has been generous, and for which he 
is grateful, although handicapped by a 
prejudice confronting on so many avenues 
of industry, and forbidding his entry. Not. 



undeserviiiji for patient and non-anarehist 
in the realms of labor, his ri^ht to possess 
and enjoying ecinality of citizensliip 
written with blood and bravery on the bat- 
tletield of every war of the IJepnblie where 
lie *^fell forward as tits a man/' Muniticent 
contribntions of Christians and pliilan- 
throj)ists, for missionary work al)road, are 
jiH^atly in evid(Mi((% ;^iven with a s(df-coni- 
placcMicy of duty done; but, however, fail 
to vivify the deelinini» puls(^-b(^at foi- (Molal- 
ity before the law and justice^ at home. 
^Manifestly there is an absiMice of that ar- 
rai^iiimeiit and coiKhMiination of wi'onj^ 
done the weak, that contributed so lar<»ely 
to abolish the '*(orn laws of Kntiland" ami 
slavery in the Tnited Staters. History is 
th(^ record that it is \ nuMi of moral cmir- 
a{»e and h(M-oism who by ])vu and voice, 
that sociality and <>aiii cannot intiniidatt* 
and combat (^vil in tluMr very midst that 
^''leave footf^rints in tlu^ sands of time." 

I must close this letter, already too Ion*:. 
Don't rej^ard me as a pessimist. 1 know 
that Bacon wrote that ''men of ajie object 
too much," but the fact is, Cooper, it has 
been so lonu since 1 heard a Fourth of July 
hallelujah chorus that I am j»etting out of 

McKinley has been ajiain nominated, I 
see, and doubtless will be elected, with a 
Congress in harmony, thus giving the 
par'ty another lea^e of power, which, God 
grant, let us hope, may redound to the wel- 



fare of all the peopl(\ Say to luy many 
friends that they are, ^^though lost to sight 
to memory dear." Truly your friend, 





The Island of Madagascar was discov- 
ered in 1506 by Lawrence Almeyda, a Por- 
tuguese; but the Persians and Arabs are 
said to have known it from time imme- 
morial. The island is divided into 28 prov- 
inces and is said to contain two hundred 
millions acres of excellent land, watered 
on all sides by streams and large rivers. 
Its two highest mountains are Vigagora 
in the north and Batistmene in the south, 
said to contain in their bowels abundance 
of fossils and valuable minerals. This isl- 
and, situated near the eastern coa^ of 
Africa, with 300 miles of the Mozambique 
Channel intervening, is 1,000 miles in 
length and varying from 200 to 400 miles 
in width, and is supposed to have been in 
remote ages a portion of the continent of 
Africa and that the progenitors of its peo- 
ple were to that "manor born;'' others that 
the channel was crossed in canoes and 
Madagascar populated. 

Rev. W. E. Cousins, an English mission- 
ary, in a late edition of "Madagascar of 
Today,'' says that "its people are not on 
the whole an African people, and much of 
its ora and fauna indicate a very long sep- 


aration from the neighboring continent. 
Particularly notable is the fact that Mada- 
gascar has no lions, deer, elephants or an- 
telopes, which are abundant in Africa; the 
people generally are not Africans, but be- 
long to the same family as Malays and Ma- 
layo Polynesians.'' How the Malayon came 
to be the predominant language has exer- 
cised the thoughts of many, Africa being 
not more than 300 miles from the west 
coast of Madagascar, whereas the nearest 
point, Malayon Peninsula, is 3,000 miles 
away. That the distinct type of African 
presents itself in large numbers of native 
population is beyond question. 

For much of the following as to the re- 
ligion, morals and customs of the Madagas- 
car people, I am indebted to Rev. Cousins, 
the missionary above referred to, and a 
work entitled ^^Madagascar, or Drury's 
Journal,'' edited by Pasfield Oliver and 
published in 1729. Robert Drury was an 
English lad that ran away from home, was 
sliipAvrecked, and held in captivity by the 
natives for 15 years, and redeemed by Cap- 
tain Mackett, commanding the "Prince of 
Wales" in the East India Company's serv- 
ice. Also to the "Island of Madagascar," 
hj Abbe Alexis Rochon, a learned French- 
man, who visited the island in 1767 and 
made an extensive report. 

Mr. Oliver mentions that there are au- 
thors who say that the religion of these 
people is Mahometanism, but he is at a 


loss to know from what they drew their 
(•oiicliisions, since their sacrifices and their 
antipathy to revelation; and, besides, at 
the only place where a Moorish ship (Ma- 
hometan) came, swines' flesh is eaten. 
These obvionsly show that there can be 
nothing in more direct opposition to it. 
There is no one circumstance like it, ex- 
cept circumcision, and that is w^ell known 
to those learned in ancient history to have 
been common to some Eastern nation 
even before the Jews had it, and where 
there is no reason to think the name of the 
Jews was ever heard, and we have more 
reason to think that the Jews derived a 
great deal from them instead of tliey from 
the Jews: that their religion is more an- 
cient is evident for several obvious rr^a- 

First, by their regarding dreams and di 
vining hj them, which so early as tlie 
Mosaic law the Children of Israel were 
warned against. 

Secondly, these people shave their hair 
all off in mourning for the dead. This 
Moses expressly commands the Israelites 
not to do, and the Jews do superstitiously 
observe this last and suffer their hair to 
grow in their mourning. 

Thirdly, Moses commanded none but 
males to be sacrificed. On the contrary, 
these sacrifice cow^s for the most part. Th(w 
have no burnt offerings but near their se- 
pulchers, which with gum, burnt likewise. 


Joined Church at an Early Age — Advanced Until he Was Elected Bishop of the 
A. M. E. Church — An Able Pulpit Orator, and Among the Bishops He 
is Known as the Politician of his Churcli^ — Having a Com- 
petency, He is Devoting His Closing Years to Be- 
nevolence and the Promotion of His Race. 



may only arise from a defense of cadaver- 
ous scents. 

Fourthly, but the most remarkable in- 
stance of all is, that the ^^owley/' whicli 
these Madagascar people divine by and 
procure most extraordinary dreams, is evi- 
dently the Ephod and Teraphin which the 
Levites used who lived in Micah's house 
(see Judges 17) and which the Israelites 
could never be wholly brought off from, 
though contrary to their law. Some have 
taken these Teraphin for images like a 
man, and there seems a show of reason in 
it from Michah, SauPs daughter putting- 
one in David's bed to deceive her father's 
messenger, while he escaped. This, it is 
possible, alludes to some divination by the 
Teraphin which she used in his behalf, for 
Teraphin is the plural number; therefore, 
could not signify onl}^ one image; neither 
could the gods which Eachel stole from her 
father, Labon, be one god as big as a man, 
for she sat on them and hid them. The 
word is here in the original '^Teraphin,'' 
although translated gods. Then, in Hosea, 
chapter 3, verse 4, ^^an image, an Ephod 
and Teraphin,'' are all mentioned in one 
verse, plainly showing that they are dis- 
tinct things. It is further to be remarked 
that b}^ this Teraphin they invoked the 
dead, which is exactly the same as these 
people do by the '^Owley" always invoking 
the spirits of their forefathers, which is 
expressh^ forbidden to Israelites, and often 
sharply inveighed against by the prophets. 



That these jjeople had not their religion 
from any polite or learned nation is by 
their retaining no notion or meaning of 
letters, nor their having a horse among 
them, either for carriage or other use, 
which could never have been forgotten had 
they ever had it. 

Mr. Oliver positively asserts that these 
Madagascar people came from Africa, and 
is certain on account of their color, while 
other writers think most of them to be de- 
scendants of Malays. 

Captain Mackett, previously mentioned 
as the redeemer of Kobert Drury from his 
15 years' captivity, states that Devon 
(King) Toak, often told him they had a tra- 
dition of their coming to the island many 
years ago in large canoes; '^but,'- says Cap- 
tain Oliver, '^let them come from where they 
will, it is evident that their religion is the 
most ancient in the known world and not 
much removed from natural religion, and 
whether the Egy ptians and Canaanites had 
their religion from them, or that they are 
Egyptians originally, it had its rise long 
before the Children of Israel were in bond- 
age, for Egypt was then a very polite 
country, and although idolators, they were 
not any more so than their neighbors be- 
fore Abraham\s time. 

^^The respect due from children to pa- 
rents is taught them early by those parents 
and grows with them, besides the grati- 
tude naturally arising to those who have 



fed and protected them Avhen they were 
helpless infants. So it is no wonder to find 
a law there against cursing parents. The 
notion of the Being of one Supreme Au- 
thor of nature arises from natural reflec- 
tion on the visible harmony and uniformity 
of the universe and seeing that men and 
things did not produce themselves. The 
reverence due to this stujjendous Being is 
<»nly of a pious and rightly amazement, 
dread and respect. The testimony was 
everywhere uniform that where Europeans 
or Mahometans had not corrupted them 
they were innocent, moral and humane. 

^^Physically the island has lost none of 
its picturesque character, so vividly por- 
trayed by Abbe Kochon more than a cen- 
tury ago, who wrote 'The Traveler,' who 
in pursuit of knowledge traverses for the 
first time wild and mountainous countries, 
intersected hj ridges and valleys, where 
nature, abandoned to its own fertility, pre- 
sents the most singular and varied produc- 
tions, cannot help being struck with ter- 
ror and surprise on viewing those awful 
jjrecipices, the summits of which are cov- 
ered with trees as ancient perhaps as the 
Avorld. His astonishment is increased 
when he hears the noise of immense cas- 
cades which are so inaccessible that it is 
impossible for him to approach them. But 
these scenes, truly picturesque, are always 
succeeded by rural views, delightful hills 
and plains, where vegetation is never in- 



terrupted by the severity and vicissitudes 
of the seasons. The eye with pleasure be- 
liolds those extensive savannas whi^-h af- 
ford nourishment to numerous herds of 
cattle and flocks of sheep. Fields of rice 
and potatoes present also a new and highly 
interesting spectacle. One sees agriculture 
flourishing, while nature alone defrays al- 
most all the expense. The fortunate in- 
habitants of Madagascar need not moisten 
the earth with their sweat; they turn it up 
slightly with a pick-axe, and this labor 
alone is sufficient. They make holes in the 
ground at a little distance from each other 
and throw into them a few grains of rice, 
over which they spread the mold with 
their feet. And what proves the great fer- 
tility of the soil is that a field thus sown 
produces an hundred-fold. The forests 
contain a prodigious variety of the most 
beautiful trees, such as palms of every 
kind, ebony, wood for dj eing, bamboos of 
an enormous size, and orange and lemon 
trees.'' The Abbe's picture is quite en- 
chanting, for it seems that ^^every prospect 

A view of Antananarivo, the capital of 
Madagascar, in the word-painting of Cam- 
eron, a war correspondent of the London 
Standard, is interesting. ^^Antananarivo 
was in sight and we could plainly see the 
glass windows of the f^alace glistening in 
the morning sun, on the top of the long 
hill upon which the city is built. It was 



Sunday, and the people were clustering 
along the foot-paths on their way to church 
or sitting in the grass outside waiting for 
the services to begin, as they do in villages 
at home. The women, who appeared to be 
in the majority, wore white cotton gowns, 
often neatly embroidered, and white or 
black and white striped lambas, thrown 
gracefully over their shoulders. The men 
were clad also in cotton, white cotton pan- 
taloons, cotton lambas, and straw^ hats, 
with large black silk band. In the morn- 
ing sun the play of colors over the land- 
scape was lovelj^ The dark green hills, 
studded with the brilliant red brick houses 
of the inhabitants, w^hose white garments 
dotted the lanes and foot-paths, contrasted 
with the brighter emerald of the rice fields 
in the hollows. The soil everywhere is 
deep red, almost magenta, in color, and 
where the roads or pathways cross the 
hills they shine out as if so many paint- 
brushes had streaked the country in broad 
red strij)es. Above all, the spires of the 
strange city, set on top of its mountain 
with a deep blue sky for a background, 
added to the beauty of the scene. 

^^It was difficult to imagine that this 
peaceful countrj^, with its pretty cottages, 
its innumerable chapels, w^hose bells were 
then calling its people to worship, and its 
troops of white-robed men and women an- 
swering the summons, was the barbarous 
Madagascar of twenty years ago.'' 




Mention of the form of j»ov(^rnnieiiL liad 
by the Madagascar people and whicli is 
now being superseded by occupancy of tlie 
French and the introduction of laws of a 
civilized nation, may not be out of place. 
As far back as tradition will carry, there 
existed in Madagascar a kind of feudalism. 
Villages were usually built on the hilltoi)S, 
and each hilltoj) had its own chi(*ftain, and 
these petty feudal chiefs werc^ constantly 
waging war with (nich other. The people 
living on these feudal estates paid taxes 
and rend(^red certain services to their feu- 
dal lords. Each child* enjoyed a semi-inde- 
pendence, for no strong over-lord existed. 
Attempts wer(^ made from time to time 
to unite these petty cliieftaius into one 
Kingdom, but no ou(^ tribt* succ(hm1(m1 in 
making itself supreme till the days of Ra- 
dam I, who succeeded in bringing the Avhole 
of Imerina under his government, and to 
his son, Radama, he left the task of subdu- 
ing the rest of the island, l^y allying him- 
self ch)sely with England, Kadama ob- 
tained military instruction and carried 
war into distant ])rovinces. He ultimately 
succeded in coiuiuering many of the tribes 
and his reign luarked the beginning of a 
new era in Madagascar. Indeed, only from 
his days could Madagascar in any sense be 
regarded as a political unit. 

In one direction, howevei*, the results of 
Iiadama's policy must be regarded as retro- 
gressive. Before his reign no chief or 
king was powerful enough to impose his 



rule upon tli(^ i>eople without their con- 

Opposition to rule, without the consent 
of the governed, has been the shibboleth 
with which liberity has rallied the votaries 
of constitutional government in all its re- 
forms. It was the magna charter extorted 
from King John at Kunnyniead — the 
trumpet call echoing and re-echoing by hill 
and through valley in our Declaration of 
Independence. Before Radama, although 
rude and prinutive in form, it was the 
basic principle cherished by the people of 
Madagascar. The princii)al men of each 
district had to be constantly consulted and 
Kabary, or public assemblies like the 
Greek or the Swiss Communal assemblies, 
were called for the discussion of all im- 
portant affairs, and public opinion had a 
fair opportunity of making itself eifective. 

'^A single tree does not make a forest, 
but the thoughts of many constitute a gov- 
ernment,'^ is handed down by tradition as 
one of the farew^ell sayings of their early 
kings, and is often quoted by the people. 
This was tlje si)irit that existed in ^^ye 
olden time,"" but after Kadama I. formed a 
large army and a militaiy caste was cre- 
ated there was a strong tendency to re- 
press and minimize the influence of civ- 
ilians in public affairs, and men holding 
military rank Imxe wielded the chief au- 

It was ever thus; for Avhile the chiefs of 
victorious legions are received with strains 



of ^^eonquering hero/' have roses for a 
pathway canopied with waving flag and 
triumphant banner, there is not wanting a 
latent, reserved concern for the legitimate 
nse of the franchise granted and whether 
vaulting ambition may not destroy the sa- 
cred inheritance they were commissioned 
to preserve. Military rank in Madagascar 
was strangely reckoned by numbers. The 
highest officers being called men of ^^six- 
teen honors,'' the men of twelve honors 
would be equal in rank to a field marshal, 
the men of nine honors to a colonel, and 
the man of three honors to a sergeant, and 
so on, through the w^hole series. 

When any important government busi- 
ness had to be made known the men from 
12 honors upward were summoned to the 
palace. Above all these officers stood the 
Prime Minister. His Excellency Eamiloi- 
arivony. The supreme head of the state 
was the Mpanjaka, or sovereign, and every 
proclamation was issued in her name and 
was generallj^ countersigned and con- 
firmed as a genuine royal message by the 
Prime Minister. For three reigns, namely, 
from the accession of Easaherina in 1863, 
Mpanjaka had been a woman and the wife 
of the Prime Minister. A general impres- 
sion exists in England that this is an old 
Madagascar custom, but such is not the 
case. The arrangement is of quite recent 
date. The last Prime Minister (not beinig 
of royal blood) was content to be Mpan- 
jaka, or ruler, and while all public honor 



was shown to the Queen, and her authority 
fully acknowledged, those behind the 
scenes would have us believe that the 
Queen was supreme only in nanie. 

As a matiter of fact, the Prime Minister, 
and even his supposed wishes and prefer- 
ences, were the most potent forces in Mad- 
agascar. Hso one seemed able to exercise 
any independent influence, and time after 
time the men who showed any special abil- 
ity or gained popularity have been re- 
moved, swept away as it were, out of the 
path of the man who had assumed and by 
his ability and astuteness maintained for 
thirty years the highest position in the 
country. There was, no doubt, a large 
amount of latent rebellion against this 
^*one-man government,'' but those who 
were the most ready to grumble in private 
were in public, perhaps, the most servile 
of any. It is conceded that in many ways 
the Prime Minister was an able ruler, and 
compared with those who went before him 
was deserving of great praise. 

He made many attempts to prevent the 
corruption of justice, and strenuously en- 
deavored to improve the administration, 
and for many years had managed to hold 
in check the ambitious projects of French 
statesmen, and had shown at many times 
his interest in the cause of education. 

But his monopoly as a ruler, the idea of 
omnipotent control, refusal to allow his 
subordinates to take their share of respon- 
sibility, like many similar instances which 


history records, loosened the bond of pa- 
triotic interest, love and integrity for coun- 
try, and made easy the ingress of the 
French in subduing and appropriating the 
Island of Madagascar. 

It has been stated that no account of 
Madagascar government would be com- 
plete that did not include a description of 
their system of "fanompoana,'' or forced 
service, which answers very nearly to the 
okl feudal service, and to the system 
known in Egypt as ^^corvee.'^ The tax- 
gatherer is not the ubiquitous person in 
Madagascar he is generally supposed to 
have been. 

There were a few taxes paid by the people, 
such, for example, as a small tax in kind 
on the rice crop, and occasionally a small 
poll-tax, and money paid the sovereigns as 
a token of allegiance on many occasions. 

Taxes of this kind were not burdensome. 
The one burden that galled and irritated 
the people was the liability to be called 
upon at any moment to render unrequited 
service to the government. 

Every man had something that Avas re- 
garded as ""fanompoana.'' The people of 
one district might be required to make 
mats for the government, in another pots, 
the article required. From one district 
r-ertain men were required to bring cray- 
fisli to the capital, charcoal from another, 
iron from another, and so on through all 
the series of wants. Tlie jeweler must make 
such articles as the Queen would desire, 
the tailor use his needle and the writer his 

K;M.^eiver of United States Liands at Little Rock. Arkansas. 

Former l»riiicii)al of PTil)Iie Schools of Uittle Rock— Ulerk in Kailwav Mail Service 
— Grand Scribe of "Moisaic Templars of America"— An Able 
and Leadiii.y- Kepnblican of Arkansas. 



pen, as the goveriiinent luiglit need. The 
isYSteni had in it some show of rongh-and- 
ready justice, and was based on the idea 
tliat each must contribute to the needs of 
the state according to his several abilities; 
but in the actual working it had a most 
injurious intluence on the wellbeing of the 
country. Each man tried to avoid the de- 
mands made upon him, and the art '4iow 
not to do it" was cultivated to a very high 
degree of perfection. Many of the head 
men made this ''fanompoana'' system a 
jneans of euriching tlieniselves, compelling 
the subordinates to serve them as well as 
the government. History does but repeat 
itself, as there are not wanting iustances 
in our own country where certain heads of 
department ''fanomponed'' subordinates 
for private service. 

In many ways are recorded the product of 
the fertile brain of these head men. For 
instance, the centurion, or head man of a 
certain district, gave out a notice in the 
church yard, on Sunday morning, or at a 
week-day market, that a hundred men 
Avould be required next morning to carry 
charcoal fur the government. As a matter 
of fact, he required only twenty, but he 
knew that many would come to him to 
beg off, and as none would come empty- 
handed, his profit on the transaction was 
considerable. Another illustration was 
given Mr. Cousins by the British Consul. 
It was customary to send up mails from 
the coast by government runners, but Eng- 



lish ideas being adverse to demanding un- 
requited service, the Consul had always 
sent the usual wages for the runners to the 
Governor, who pocketed the dollars and 
^^fanoniponed" the mail. But enough of 
this, as it has a flavor of our "Star Eoute 
Mail'' disclosures, which startled the coun- 
try some years ago, and conclude with a 
(tribute to Tammany, as: 

We arise to remark, and our language is 

That the Tweeds and the Crokers are of 
3Ialagash fame. 




The introduction and perpetuation of 
tlie Christian religion in Madagascar has 
been attended with vicissitudes, hopeful, 
discouraging, and finally permanent. The 
Catholics were the first to attempt to gain 
a footing on the southeast corner of the 
island. A French mission settled and com- 
menced to instruct the natives in the 
lioman Catholic faith, and maintained a 
mission in spite of many discouragements 
for twenty years, and then came to an end. 
Protestants who a century and a half later 
carried the Gospel to Madagascar found it 
virgin soil. They found a people without 
a written language or knowledge of the 
Christian faith. Both in their literary and 
evangelical labors tliej^ had to revive a 
work that was not dying out, but to start 
de novo, and the London Missionary So- 
ciety had to seek its own way to carry out 
its objects. 

The men to whom it appears that the 
Madagascar people are indebted for their 
written languages and the first translation 
of the Scriptures were tAvo Welshmen. 

David Jones and David Criflfiths — ^these 



two men were the pioneers of Protestant 
missions in Madagascar — the first in 1820, 
the second a year hiter. The main strength 
of tliese early missionaries Avas devoted to 
edncational work, in which they were vig- 
orously supported by King Kadama I, and 
Mr. Hastie, the British agent. Besides 
this they began very early to mal^e a trans- 
hition of the Scriptures, and in ten j^ears 
after the arrival of Mr. Jones in Antanan- 
arivo the first edition of 3,000 copies of the 
New Testament was completed, in March, 
1830. At this time much progress had 
been made in the translation of the Old 
Testament. The account of the completion 
of it is interesting. Soon after the death 
of King Badama I, in 1828, the mission- 
a]ies saw clear indications of the uncer- 
tainty of their positions; ominous clouds 
began to gather until the storm burst. 

The edict of Queen Banavalona I against 
the Christian Church was published March 
1, 1835. A portion of the Old Testament 
translation Avas uncompleted. The mis- 
sions were deserted by their converts, and 
they could procure no workman to assist; 
so Avith trembling haste they proceeded 
with their task, and at the end of June 
they had joy in seeing the first bound cop- 
ies of the completed Bible. Most of these 
Avere secretlj^ distributed, and seventy re- 
maining copies Avere buried for safety in 
the earth — precious seed over Avhicli God 
watched and Avhicli in due season produced 
a glorious harvest. The translators were 



<lriyeii away, but (he book reinaiiied. 
Studied in secret, and at the risk of life, it 
serAed (hirin<> more than a (quarter of a 
(•entury of persecution to keep alive faith 
in the newly received religion; for, during 
all this time, to use the familiar native 
phrase, '"the land was dark.'' At its com- 
mencement Queen Tianavalona (the Queen 
Mary of Madagascar), with all the force of 
her strong u ill, set herself to destroy tlie 
new religion. '^It was cloth," she said, ''of 
a pattern she did not like, and she was de- 
termined none of her people should use it.'' 
The victims of her fury form a noble 
army of martyrs, of whom Madagascar is 
justly proud. The causes that led to the 
persecution are not far to seek. On the one 
hand, they Avere intensely conservative, 
clinging to ancestral customs; and on the 
other liand, a suspicious and jealous fear 
of foreign intluence. The zealous Avork of 
the missionaries Avas believed by many of 
the Queen's advisers to be only a cloak to 
conceal political designs. The teachings 
of the foreigners Avere proving so attractive 
that their chapels Avere croAvded, and the 
influence of this ucaa^ religion Avas making 
itself felt in many families. Whither 
AAOuld all this lead? Was it to pave the 
Avay to annex the island to the English 
GoAwnment? The Avord "society" to a na- 
tiAe ignorant of English Avould suggest a 
phrase of their oAvn Avhich sounds alike, 
viz: "sosoy-oty" — "^pusli the canoe OA^er this 
way." This to the ingenuous or suspi- 



cioiis mind of the hearers suggested the 
idea of pushing over the Government of 
Madagascar to those across the ocean who 
-were supposed to be greedih^ seeking to 
seize it. This is seemingly absurd, but not 
too ridiculous to obtain credence witli a 
people excited and suspicious. 

The former King Kadama showed his 
shrewdness in giving permission to the 
missionaries to reside in his country, for 
he expressly stipulated that some of them 
should be skilled artisans, so that his peo- 
ple might be instructed in weaving, smith- 
work, carpentry, etc. To this the society 
Avisely assented, and a number of Chris- 
tian artisans were sent out. Tlie influence 
of these were of immense value, and to 
them is to be attributed much of the skill 
of the Madagascar workman of today. 

There is no doubt that the manifest util- 
ity of their Avork did much to win for the 
mission a measure of tolerance from the 
heathen rulers of the country. One of the 
missionaries with great mechanical skill, 
in his *^I\ecollections,-' states that Queen 
RanaA alona in 1830 Avas beginning to feel 
uneasy about the groAving influence of for- 
eign ideas and AA'islied to get rid of the mis- 
sionaries. She sent officers to carry her 
message, and the missionaries Avere gath- 
ered together to meet the messengers, and 
were told that they had been a long time 
in the country and had taught much, and 
that it Avas time for them to think of re- 
turning to their natiA'e land. The mission- 



aries, alarmed at this message, answered 
that they had only begun to teach some 
of the elements of knowledge, and that 
very many more remained to be imported, 
mentioning sundry branches of education, 
among which were Greek and Hebrew lan- 
guages, which had already been taught to 
some. The messengers returned to the 
Queen, and soon came back with the an- 
swer: ^^The Queen does not care much for 
Greek and Hebrew. Can you teach how to 
make soap?'^ (And if cleanliness is akin to 
godliness she was evidently groping in the 
right direction.) This was an awkward 
question to address theologians; almost as 
much so as ^'Do you know enough to come 
in out of the rain?-' to some college grad- 
uates; but after a moment's pause Mr. 
Griffith turned to Mr. Cameron and asked 
him if he could answer it. '^Give me a 
week,'' and it was given, and when the 
messengers again met at the close of the 
week a bar of tolerable good white soap,^ 
made from materials found in the country, 
was presented. This was entirely satis- 
factory, and the manufacture of soap was^ 
forthwith introduced, and is still continued 
to the present day. This bar of soap gained 
the missionaries a respite of five years, the 
Queen tolerating their presence on account 
of material advantage derived from the 
work of the artisans. In believing that in- 
dustrial training, the knowledge to make 
things in demand, was the first necessary 


Kstep for the elevation of lier people, the 
Queen was eminently correct. 

During the fifteen years (from 1820 to 
1835) the mission was alloAved to exist it 
was estimated that 10,000 to 15,000 chil- 
dren passed through school, so that when 
the missionaries were compelled to leave 
the island there were thousands Avho had 
learned to read, and therebj^ raised far 
above the mass of their lieathen fellow- 

Dark Days — January, 1835, a formal 
complaint was presented to the mission- 
aries b}^ one of the (Queen's officers against 
the Christian religion under six different 
heads. Excitement increased and opposi- 
tion to the new teaching grew bolder. The 
Queen, in passing a native chapel and hear- 
ing singing, was heard to say: ^^Tliey will 
not stop till some of them lose their 

On the first of March, 1835, the edict 
publicly prohibiting the Christian religion 
was delivered in the presence of thousands 
of people who had been summoned to hear 
it. The place of meeting Avas a large open 
space lying to the Avest of the long hill on 
which the city of Antananarivo is built, 
and large enough to contain two or more 
thousand people. In the middle of the plain 
<*rops up a large mass of granite rock, on 
Avhich only royal persons were allowed to 
stand; hence probably the name ^^Imo- 
hamosine,'' which means ^^having power to 
make sacred.-^ There from time to time 



large public assemblies have been held, but 
never one of greater significance or of more 
far-reacliing issues than that. Of this 
great '^kabarj /' or meeting, notices had 
been sent far and wide. All possible meas- 
ures had been taken to inspire the people 
with awe and to make them feel that a 
proclamation of unusual imi)ortance was 
about to be published. Queen Eanavalona 
semed anxious to make her people feel that 
her anger was burning with an unwonted 
fury. It is stated that morning had scarce- 
1} dawned when the report of the cannon 
intended to strike terror and awe into the 
hearts of the i)eople ushered in the day on 
which the will and power of the sovereign 
of Madagascar to punish the defenseless 
followers of Christ was to be declared. Fif- 
teen thousand troops were drawn up, part 
of them on the plain and the rest in two 
lines a mile in length along the road lead- 
ing to tlie place. The booming of artillerj^ 
from the high ground overlooking the 
plain and the rej^orts of musketry of the 
troops, which was continued during the 
preparatory arrangements, produced 
among the multitude the most intense and 
anxious feelings. At length the Chief Jus- 
tice, attended by his companions in office, 
advanced and delivered the message of the 
Sovereign, which was enforced by Rami- 
haro, the chief officer of the Government. 
After exj^ressing the Queen's confidence in 
the idols, and her determination to treat as 



criminals all who refused to do them hom- 
age, the message proceeded: 

^^As to baptism, societies, places of wor- 
ship, and the observance of the Sabbath — 
how many rulers are there in the land? Is 
it not I, alone, that rule? These things are 
not to be done. They are unlawful in my 
country,'' said the Queen, ^^for they are not 
the customs of our ancestors.'' 

As a result of this ^^kabary'' 400 officers 
were reduced in rank and fines were paid 
for 2,000 others, and thus was ushered in 
a persecution which lasted a quarter of a 

The Eev. AVilliam Ellis, on English mis- 
sionaries, in his book entitled '^Madagas- 
car Ifevisited,'' states that the first martyr 
for (;lirist wlio suffered there in 1836 was 
^'Eosolama.'' She was a Christian woman, 
between tAventy and thirty j-ears of age, 
bearing no common name, for Rosolama 
signifies peace and happiness. She was 
imprisoned at Ambotonakonga, the site of 
the first house built exclusively for Chris- 
tian worship in the countr3^ A memorial 
church has been erected on the spot. When 
brought to the place she knelt down and 
asked a few minutes to pray. This was 
granted, and then her body fell, pierced 
with the spears of her executioners. 

The second martyr, Eayfarolaliy, a young 
man, suft'ered on the same i)lace some time 
after. At the request of Kosolama when 
she was taken forth to death he had 
walked by her side to the place of execu- 

REV. J. P. ROLl.Ns^N. 
Pastor of First Baptist Church, Little Rock, Arlvaiisas. 

Eminent as a Successful Preacher, with Mach Originality of Thought 
and Strength of ronvictions. 



tion and offered words of encourageinent 
to her to the last. When brought to the 
place himself the executioners seized him 
and were about, as was their custom, to 
forciblj^ throw him down, he said to them 
calmly, ^^There is no need to do that; I 
will not cause any trouble.'' He also asked 
to be allowed to pray, and then gently laid 
himself down and received the execution- 
ers' spears. The measures taken to destroy 
Christianity were not at all times equally 
severe. The years that stand out with 
special prominence are 1835, 1837, 1840, 
1849 and 1857. Of what took place in 1840 
was depicted at the time in a letter writ- 
ten by Kev. D. Griffiths, who was then re- 
siding at Antananarivo. The nine con- 
demned Christians were taken past Mr. 
Griffiths' house. ^^Eamonisa," he says, 
^^looked at me and smiled; others also 
looked at me, and their faces shone like 
those of angels in the posture of prayer and 
wrestling with God. They Avere too w^eak 
to walk, having been without rice or water 
for a long time. The people on the wall 
and in the yard before our house were 
cleared off by the swords and spears of 
those leading them to execution. That we 
might have a clear, full and last sight of 
them, they were presented opposite the bal- 
conj on the road and at the entrance of the 
yard for about ten minutes, carried on 
poles by the executioners, with merely a 
hand breadth of cloth to cover them, they 




were then led away to execution. The can- 
non fired to announce their death was 
shattered to pieces, and the gunners- 
clothes burnt, which was considered omi- 
nous, many whispering 'Thus will the king- 
dom of Ranavalona ^NFanjaka be shattered 
to i)ieces.' 

In 1849 what may be called the great 
persecution took place; not less than 1,900 
persons suffered persecution of various 
kinds — fines, imprisonment, chains, or 
forced labor in the quarries. Of this num- 
ber 18 suffered death, four, of noble birth, 
by being burned, and 11 by being thrown 
over the great precipice of Ampomarinona. 
It is not easy to estimate exactly the num- 
ber of those who suffered the punishment 
of death in these successive outbursts of 
I>ersecution. It is most probable the vic- 
tims were between seventy or eighty. But 
these form only a small portion of the total 
number of sufferers. Probably hundreds 
of others died from their heavy irons, 
chains, or from fevers, severe forced labor, 
or privations during the time they were 
compelled to hide in caves or in the depths 
of the forests. 

Notwithstanding the severe persecution 
much quiet Christian work Avas carried on 
in the lulls between storms — sometimes on 
Jiilltops, sometimes in caves, or even in un- 
finished tombs. Thus the story of the 
Covenanters was repeated, and the impos- 
sibility of destroying the Christian faith 
by persecution again shown. Through 

In Madagascar in chains— Receiving consolation. 



these long 3 ears of persecution the Chris- 
tians were constantly receiving accessions 
to their ranks, and the more they were oj)- 
posed '^the more the}' multiplied and 

The 3 ear 18G1 will ever be a period from 
Avhich date results momentous in behalf of 
civil and religious liberty for the Negro. 
It was the beginning of the end of Negro 
slavery in the United States and the per- 
manent establishment of religious freedom 
in Madagascar. Queen Ranavalona had a 
long reign of thirty-three years, but in that 
year it became evident she could not reign 
much longer. Natives give details of her 
last days. The aged Queen had for some 
time been sulfering in health; diviners had 
been urgently consulted, charms and po- 
tent herbs had been empdoj^ed, with no 
avail. Late in the summer of 1861 it be- 
came generalh^ known that the fatal mo- 
ment could not long be dehtyed. Mys- 
terious fires were said to be seen on the 
tops of mountains surrounding the capital, 
and a sound like music was rising from 
latr\' to Andohalo. The Queen eagerly 
questioned those around her as to the 
meaning of these portents. But while the 
djdng Queen was anxiously praying to the 
idol in which she placed her trust, there 
were those who whispered to the prince 
that the fire was the sign of jubilee to bring 
together the dispersed, and to redeem the 
lost, and so the event proved. 



The aged Queen passed away during the 
night of August 15, 1861, and early on the 
morning of August 16 the news spread 
rapidly through the capital, and her son 
was proclaimed as Eadama II. One of the 
first acts of the new sovereign was to pro- 
claim religious libertj^ The chains were 
struck oft* from the persecuted Christians 
and the banished were recalled. Many 
came back who had long been in banish- 
ment or in hiding, and their return seemed 
to friends who had supposed them to be 
dead like a veritable resurrection. 

The joy of the Christian was intense. The 
long season of repression had at last come 
to an end. Now it was no longer a crime 
to meet for Christian worship, or to possess 
Christian books. On that first Friday even- 
ing some of the older Christians met and 
spent the night in prayer, and Sunday 
services were begun in eleven private 
houses; but these were soon consolidated 
into three large congregations. Eadama 
II eagerly welcomed intercourse with for- 
eigners and gave Christians permission to 
write at once, urging that missionaries be 
sent out, himself writing to the London 
Missionary Society making the same re- 
quest. The societ}^ responded promptly 
with a large band of men and women mis- 
sionaries, twenty or thirty thousand copies 
of the Bible, New Testament and tracts. 

The result of three-quarters of a century 
of Christian work in Madagascar has been 
that the Christian religion has taken firm 


hold on the people. Manifest and notice- 
able are the number and prominence of 
church buildings in and around the cap- 
ital. There are four stone memorial 
churches, built by the friends of the Lon- 
don Missionary Society to remind coming 
generations of the fidelity of the mar- 
tyrs, and a very fine and well sit- 
uated Roman Catholic cathedral in 
Ambodin Andaholo. Prominent as Chris- 
tian agencies in Madagascar are ^^The So- 
cietj^ for the Propagation of the Gospel/' 
who sent out Bishop Kestel Cornish and 
James Coles; "The Norwegian Missionary 
Society/' "The Roman Catholic Missionary 
Society/' and "The Society of Friends in 

To summarize, approximately there are 
now 110 foreign missionaries on the island; 
over 2,000 congregations, with a total of 
400,000 adherents, which include 100,000 
church members; while the Protestant 
schools contain 150,000 children. No state- 
ment of the Christianizing agencies and in- 
fluences would be just or correct that did 
not include that of the Roman Catholic 
Church. "No one," it has been truly said, 
"can be long in Madagascar without learn- 
ing to admire the self-denial, patience and 
heroic fortitude with which its work is car- 
ried on." It has been thus fittingly de- 
scribed, a few years ago, by an English 
visitor: "In 1861, when Catholic mission- 
aries landed on the shores of Tamatave 
there was not a Catholic on the island; but 



little by little, by dint of unwearied labor, 
suffering and preaching, they won over not 
hundreds but thousands of pagans to the 
love and knowledge of our Lord and His 
truth, so that their pagan converts num- 
ber over 130,000. They have built a mag- 
nificent cathedral, which is the glory and 
pride of Antananarivo. They have also 
oOO churches and 100 or more Catholic sta- 
tions scattered over the island, where 
18,000 children are taught and trained by 
a large and elevated staff of Christian 
brothers and sisters of St. Joseph, and Oil 
native teachers. They have also created in- 
dustrial schools, where various trades are 
taught b}^ two devoted brothers, Benjamin 
and Arnoad, and at Ambohipo they have 
a flourishing college for young Malagash. 
They have also on the island four large dis- 
pensaries, where thousands of prescrip- 
tions are distrubuted gratis to all who seek 
to relieve their sutt'erings. They have also 
established a leper hospital at Ambohivo- 
raka, where the temporal and spiritual 
wants of 150 poor lepers are freely admin- 
istered to, and have already opened an- 
other such establishment, in Betsilio land. 
Prison visitation, dispensing rice, clothing, 
and spiritual instruction to half -starved 
and naked prisoners under the Madagascar 
Tule; their catalogue of books devotional, 
literary and scientific; a dictionary, all of 
which have been edited and published in 
the Madigascan language, are among the 



golden contributions for civilization by the 
Catholics in this far-off island continent in 
the Indian seas.'' 

In referring to their labors, and to which, 
comparativeh , I have made but brief refer- 
ence, Mr. Cousins says: '^To much in the 
Roman Catholic system we may be stren- 
uously opposed; but to their zeal, their 
skill, their patience, their self-denial, we 
render the homage of an ungrudging ad- 

The foregoing were the labors and re- 
sults of missionary effort up to the date of 
the French taking absolute possession of 
the island. It is to be hoped there will be 
no retrograde movement lessening the ef- 
ficiency of these civilizing agencies. Al- 
though it is alleged that French control 
and influence in Tahiti and other South Sea 
islands have been averse to both morality 
and evangelical Christianity, and hence 
there are not wanting those who predict 
incumbrances in missionary work, now 
French authority is established. But in 
this age of progress along all the lines of 
human endeavor the French Government 
will undoubtedly see the justice and utility 
of governing with a regard to the advance- 
ment of these wards that the prowess of 
its arms have committed to its care. It is 
not unreasonable to expect, and the prom- 
ise should be flattering, that with the 
European ideas of the proper functions of 
government, the incipient steps for the 
mental culture of the natives, present evi- 



dence of larj^e expeuditure and introduc- 
tion of the most modern applications for 
the physical development of the island, the 
Madigascau people will attain in the fu- 
ture a higher degree of human advance- 
ment from contact with the civilization of 
the French than it was possible they could 
have under '^llova rule.'- And in this con- 
nection it is gratifying to note that ''The 
Native IJace Protection Committee,'' head- 
ed by Mr. Paul Alollet, of the Taris Insti- 
tute, in June, 1899, addressed an appeal to 
the Colonial Minister in behalf of the Mala- 
gash, entreating him to shorten the forced 
labor, to reduce the taxes, and to annul de- 
crees, which greatly re-established slavery. 

The ap])eal dwelt on the fearful mortal- 
ity occasioned by forced labor on the roads, 
which threatened to reduce the most ro- 
bust population of the highlands as to de- 
bar colonists from commercial and agricul- 
tural enterprises, and very pertinently asks 
^^Is it not better to be without roads than 
without a healthy population?'- The ap- 
peal also denounced arbitrary acts. ''The 
native,'' it is said, ^'is arrested and impris- 
oned for months Avithout a trial, and this 
with all the less forbearance, as the pris- 
oner is ahvays utilized as an economic la- 
borer.-' The justice of this appeal and 
prompt reception and accord Avith tlie 
French conscience Avas evidenced in the 
public announcement to the natives by 
Gen. Galliena, the Governor of Madagas- 
car, a fcAv months later, that forced labor 



^vould be discontinued after January 1, 
1900, and thereafter they could work for 
whom they pleased, and if for govern- 
ment they would be paid wages agreed to. 

It is needless to say that this proclama- 
tion was received by the natives with tu- 
multuous rejoicing. Forced labor is now 
iibolished, and the natives rejoice in a jubi- 
Jee from a servitude the most galling. 





The adaptability of the Xegro to condi- 
tions that are at the time inevitable has 
been the paladium that has sustained and 
multiplied him amid the determined preju- 
dice that has ever assailed him. The In- 
dian, unassimilating, combatted the preju- 
dice of caste by physical force, and has 
been well nigh extinguished, while the 
Negro has bowed to the inevitable with 
the mental reservation to rise to a higher 
recognition hj a persistent assimilation of 
the forces that disenthralled and exalted 
the Saxon. 

The foregoing chapter, indicating the 
policy of the French in their occupation 
and dealing with Madagascar, the planting 
of a nation's authority and establishing a 
colom^ on the ruins of a weaker power, or 
of subject races, under the plea of human- 
itjy or through the chicanery of diplomacy, 
has ever been the rule when territorj^ has 
been desired by a stronger power. The 
proximity of Cuba to the States, and Span- 
ish misrule of that island, and also of the 
Philippines, were the ^^open sesame,'' it is 
alleged, that beckoned the armed force of 
the United States to take possession. But 
in truth the Spanish jewel, Cuba, shone in 



the distance, '^so near, and yet so far-- — so 
near for miseliievous comijlication, and so 
far for material and diplomatic control. 
With a vicious administration by a nation 
of deca^ ing prestige were all elements 
promising success to the invader. The 
covert and dastardly destruction of the U. 
S. warship '^Maine'' in Cuban waters, the 
oft'spring of Spanish suspicion of American 
designs, was all, and more than required, 
to inaugurate a ^^causi belli'' and complete 
the conquest of the island. To claim that 
these movements had their incipiency in 
a consensus of desire of the American peo- 
ple for justice to subject races, and was 
solely, or even mainly, on account of Span- 
ish tyrannj', is a statement that will not 
bear investigation for moral consistency. 
It being the very antipodes of their current 
behavior to a large class of citizens born 
beneath the pinions of their eagle of free- 
dom at home. 

For how does it liappen that the alien 
Cuban and Filipino colored brothers are so 
much more entitled to protection and 
the enjoyment of civil and political rights 
than the colored American brother, that 
thousands of lives and millions of treasure 
must be expended to establish that human- 
ity and justice abroad denied by these 
^Svorld reformers'' to millions of their citi- 
zens at home? Really, it would seem that 
to duty and the bestowal of justice 'tis ^^dis- 
tance that lends enchantment to the view." 
"Wherever you see a head, hit it," was the 



slogan of Pat, at Donnybrook Fair, and 
wherever there has been a territorial plum 
ripe in its loneliness, and tempting in its 
lusciousness, there has not been wanting a 
'^grabber.'" It was the French in Mada- 
gascar, the English in Africa, and the 
Americans in the Antilles. ^^O! civiliza- 
tion; what crimes are committed in thy 
name I'' The record of our stewardship is 
in the tomb of the future for the coming 
historian to '"point a moral or adorn a 

The acquisition of new territory, when 
honorably acquired, is ever attended with 
peculiar conditions and vicissitudes. The 
transformation of the population of which 
into a desirable element of the body politic 
depends much upon the wisdom of the 
statesman, and the insistence of moral 
rectitude on the part of the Christian and 
philanthropist whether it shall be a bless- 
ing or an evil to both parties in interest. 

It is no secret that in many minds the 
motive and manner of acquiring the Philip- 
pines are open to much disparaging com- 
ment. We are charged with wresting by 
superior force that independence that a 
weak but heroic people were and had been 
for ten years struggling to attain from the 
Spanish yoke; that we, whom they hailed 
as an assistant and in good faith co-op- 
erated with in turn, became their hostile 
enemies and destroyed that identity as an 
independent entity for which they fought. 

The. conditions which confronted Agui- 


Grand M:ist<-r "Mosaic Templars of America." 
Born ill Pulaski Coiiiit}% Arkansas, in^ 1860 — For Many Years Prominent in the 
Mail Service of tliat State — Broad in His Sympathies, and Strong as 
an Advocate for the Beneficent Principles of the Insti- i 
tution of which He is tlie Head. 



naldo as the leader of the Philippine revo- 
lution have been yividly described by a 
Avriter of English history: ^^With the states- 
man in revolutionary^ times, it is not 
through decisive moments that seemed 
only trivial, and by imi)ortant turns that 
semed indifferent; for he explores dark and 
untried paths; groping his way through a 
jungle of vicissitudes, ambush and strat- 
egem; expedient, a match for fortune in all 
her moods. Regardless of what has been 
called ^histoiy's severe and scathing touch,' 
we cannot forget the torrid air of revolu- 
tionary times, the blinding sand storms of 
faction, the suspicions, jealousies and ha- 
treds, the distinctions of mood and aim, the 
fierce play of passions that put an hourly 
strain of untold intensity on the constancy, 
the prudence, and tlie valor of a leader.'' 

No one can read the state papers and 
proclamations of Aguinaldo without being 
impressed with his ability as a leader, the 
intensity of his patriotism and honesty of 
purpose depicted for the independence of 
his country from Spanish rule. The states- 
manship he displayed, the intelligent and 
liberal conception of constitutional govern- 
ment, and the needs and aspirations of his^ 
people, are at variance with the allegation 
that the Filipinos were unfit for self-gov- 

Hence it is that men ask, ^'Would it not 
have been national nobility of a high order 
if as a protector we should have given them 
a protectorate instead of the ignoble action 



of sljooting them dovvii in their patriotic 
attempt Indeed, it remains to be seen 
whether absolute authority obtained by 
such means, to<>ether with current Amer- 
ican usaf>e of coh)red races, will not evolve 
th(^ fact tliat they have but clianj^cMl mas- 
ters. For here in our own hemispluMc^ our 
country's history continues to be rife with 
hnvh^ssness at tlie bid(lin<» of a vicious sen- 
timent, and in soiiu^ s(M tions it is the rule 
and not the exception. 1^'ree from the re- 
straint of law-abidinj; localities in the 
States, the American advcMiturer of lawless 
Iiropensity will have fnu^ i'(Mgn in bullying 
and oppressing, and i)robabl(* partiality in 
tli(^ administration of tln^ law. 

(Jeorge E. Hon*, tlu^ abh^ (Mlitor of the 
^"•AVatchman,'' under '^Tn^atnuMit lo Sub- 
ject Ivaces,'' is pointed and timely when he 
says: ^^The Englisliman who (Muigrati^s to 
an English colony tinds that Ik^ counts un- 
der the same laws that a])ply to tlu* na- 
tives; he is not a privilegcHl i)ersonage, by 
virtue of the fact that he is an English- 
man. Law is enacted and executed with 
absolute impartiality. In India a native 
and an Englislnuan stand exactly on tiie 
same plane before the law. Indeed, in many 
cases, an Englishman Avill be tried by an 
Indian judge. The British have not suc- 
ceeded in winning the affections of the na- 
tives, but the natives are thoroughly con- 
viced the Englishman will act justly. 
There will not be (in practice) one law for 
European and another for the native, as in 



too many cases in our own country there 
5s one law for the white man and another 
for the black man." 

But let us all work, hope and trust that 
the best of American Christianity and civ- 
ilization may be equal to the emergency, 
giving- the Filipinos a larger measure of 
liberty and civil rights than they had un- 
der the erstwhile rule of Spain. 

Under a constitutional government it is 
premised that sustenance and valor for 
^'amor patria'' proceeds from the fact that 
its institutions are designed as bulwarks 
for the citizen's liberty, and that its po- 
litical and economic features are such as 
guarantee equality before the law and pro- 
mote an e(iual chance in the race of life. 

That there is a degree of selfishness in 
his patriotism, and that government is re- 
vered only as a means to an end, is evi- 
denced by revolutionary tendencies ever 
uppermost when there are reasons to be- 
lieve that these benign purposes are being 
thwarted. But if for wrongs, the return be 
fidelity, for obloquy patience, for maltreat- 
ment loyalty, be a high type of Christian 
ethics, the refiex influence of which, we 
read, are Godlike; surely the Negro has 
virtues ''not born to die,'- presaging an en- 
durance that must evolve out of this nettle 
discomfort, justice and contentment. For, 
as heretofore, in the last war with Spain, 
putting behind him his century of oppres- 
sion in slavery, and the vicious discrimina- 
tion since his emancipation, forgetful of all 



else save the honor and j;lory of the flagv 
there, as, always, lie wi-ote his name high 
up on the roll of his country-s heroes. 
^^Our's not to ask the reason why; our's to 
do or die." To read the reports of com- 
manders and otlna* ofticei's, ;nid the narra- 
tives of bystanders, all attesting to a 
bravery invincible, causes the blood to tin- 
gle and the patriot heai-t to leap. We are 
making history replete with s(^lf-abnega- 
tion as we continue to bring to our coun- 
try's altar an unstinted devotion and bril- 
liant achievement. These take their places 
fittingly, and w(^ sliouhl k(M^]) them in the 
forefront of our claim for eciuality of cit- 

For it is declared that '"not the leasi 
uable lesson taught by tlu^ war with Spain 
is the excellence^ of tlu^ >s(\gro soldif^i-A'. In 
the battle of San Juan, nc^ar Santiago, a 
Negro regiment is said to have borne the 
brunt of the battle. Three companies suf- 
fered nearly as seriously, yet they re- 
mained steady under fire without an offi- 
cer. The war has not shown greater hero- 
ism. In the battle of Guasimas it is said 
by some of the '^l\ough liiders" themselves 
that it Avas the brilliant supporting charge 
of the Tenth Cavalry that saved them from 
destruction. George Kennon writes: "^I 
do not hesitate to call attention to the 
splendid behavior of the colored troops.'' 
It is the testimony of all who saw them un- 
der fire that they fought with the utmost 
courage, coolness and determination; and 



Colonel Koosevelt said to a squad of them 
in the trenches in my presence that he 
never expected to have and could not ask 
to have better men beside him in a hard 
fight. If soldiers come up to Colonel Roose- 
velt's standard of courage, their friends 
have no reason to be ashamed of them. 
His commendation is equivalent to a medal 
of honor for conspicuous gallantry, be- 
cause, in the slang of the camp, he is him- 
self a fighter '^from way back." I can tes- 
tify, furthermore, from my own personal 
observation in the hospital of the Fifth 
Army Corps, Saturday and Sunday night, 
that the colored regulars who were brought 
in there displayed extraordinary fortitude 
and self-control. There were a great many 
of tliem, but I cannot remember to have 
heard a groan or complaint from a single 

General Miles is (juoted as favoring an 
increased number of colored soldiers in the 
United States service. He said that ''in no 
instance had they failed to do their full 
duty in this war, or in the campaigns in the 
West; in short, they were model soldiers in 
every respect; not only in courage have 
they done themselves credit, but in their 
conduct as well.'' 

AVhen the Second Volunteer regiment of 
Tniniunes (white) became so disorderly in 
Santiago that they had to be sent outside 
to the hills for better discipline. General 
Shafter ordered into the city the Eighth 




Illinois ref;iinent of colored troops, who 
had ail unsullied name for sobriety and dis- 
cipline, and enjoyed the thorou<»li confi- 
dence of those in coniniand. And the fol- 
lowing brief conij)endinni of S])anish war 
jnention from a fcnv of the leading press of 
the country is good I'eading. A sohlier 
writing home to fi*i(Mids in S])ringtiehl 
said: ''You want to S(m^ rh(^ Negroes; th(\v 
let out a yell and chai-gc^, and lh(^ fight is 
ovei'/' Arthur Partridge, of Co. !>, writes: 
^^Vt lirst we got the worst of it, but we re- 
ceived reinforccMuents from th(^ two n^ui- 
nuMits of colored infantry, who walked 
right up to the block hous(% against their 
whole lire; th(w lost hc^avily, but it put 
lu^art into (^v(^i'vbo(ly, and the way we 
drov(^ those Spaniards was a caution. A 
colorcMl man can have anything of mint^ he 
wants. W'luMi storming tln^v ycihMl like 
li( lids.'' Corporal Keating of Co. writes: 
^'The Negroes ari^ iight(M*s from their toes 
up. Th(\v sav(Ml l{oos(M'(dt at the first bat- 
tle, and took one of tlu^ forts in the battle 
a few days ago.'' 

Thomas Ilolnu^s, a Rough Kider, who 
hails from Xewkirk, Oklahoma, was the 
magnet of attraction at St. Paul's Hospi- 
tal, says a writer in tlu^ New York Tribune, 
'•lie is a handsome, stalwart fellow, full of 
anecdote and good humor, and popular all 
around. He was sitting next to Cori)oral 
Johnson, of the Tenth Cavalry, a Negro 
who still carries a Mauser bullet some- 
where 'inside of me inside,' as he exi)ressed 



it. ^Tlie colored cavalry fought well, eii?' 
interjected the clergyman. 'Indeed they 
did,- said Holmes, fervently. 'That old idea 
about a ''yellow streak'' being in a Negro 
is all wrong. Xo men could haA^e fought 
more bravely, and I want to tell you that 
but for the coming up of the Tenth Cavalry 
the Eough liiders might have been cut to 
pieces.' "Oh, he is just talking,' said the 
colored man, who smiled like a happy child 

Says the ^Thiladelphia Daily Press:'' "At 
every forward movenu^nt in our national 
life the Negro comes to the front and 
shares in the advance with each national 
ex])ansion. He doe^ his part of the work, 
and deserves equal recognition. At San- 
tiago two Negro reginu^nts — the Ninth, in 
General Sumner's Brigade, and the Tenth, 
in General Bates' — were at the front in the 
center of the line. With the rest they 
crested the heights of San Juan; with the 
rest they left their men thickly scattered 
on the slope, and since they shared in 
death every member of the race has a right 
to ask tliat in life no rights be denied and 
no privileges curtailed. The Avhite regi- 
ments that connected them in that thin 
blue line, that slender hoop of steel which 
hemmed in more than its opposing num- 
ber, may have held men who hesitate about 
this and that, contact with color; but on 
that Saturday afternoon and Sunday 
morning, when risk and peril hung heavy 
over the line, there was no hesitation in 



closing up on the Ninth and Tenth Regi- 
ments, because the men in tliem were col- 
ored. All honor to the black troops of the 
gallant Tenth.'' 

Says the ^^New York Mail and Express:'' 
^^No more striking example of bravery and 
coolness has been shown since the destruc- 
tion of the Maine than by the colored vet- 
erans of the Tenth Cavalry during the at- 
tack on Fort Caney of Saturday. By the 
side of the intrepid 'Itough Kiders' they 
followed their leader up the terrible hill 
from whose crest the desperate Spaniards 
poured down a deathly tire of shell and 
musketry. They never faltered; the rents 
in their ranks were filled as soon as made. 
Firing as they marched, their aim was 
splendid, their coolness superb, and their 
courage aroused the admiration of their 
comrades. Their advance was greeted 
with wild cheers from the white 
regiments, and with an answering 
shout they pressed onward over the 
trenches tliey had taken close in pursuit of 
the retreating enemy. The war has not 
shown greater heroism. The men whose 
freedom ^^'as baptised in blood have proven 
themselves capable of giving their lives 
that others may be free. Today is a glor- 
ious ^Fourth' for all races of people in this 
great land." 

The ^'New Orleans Item" gives its con- 
temporary, the ^^States," the following 
spanking (with the usual interrogation^ 
^^Now will you be good?"): "The ^States- 



Las evidently failed to profit by the ben- 
eficial lesson taught since the opening of 
the Santiago campaign. Had our esteemed 
contemporary been present in Eichmond a 
few days since, when the form of a Negro 
soldier pierced by nine Mauser bullets was 
tenderly borne throvigh the streets by four 
stalwart white infantry men, he would 
have heard the lustiest cheers that ever 
went up from the throats of the residents 
of the former capital of the Confederacy. 
Perhaps our anti-Negro friend would have 
learned wisdom from the statement of a 
member of Roosevelt's regiment, who de- 
clared in an interview with a press repre- 
sentative, that had it not been for the 
valiant conduct of the Negro cavalry at 
Baguiri the Rough Riders would have 
found the routing of the Spaniards almost 
a hopeless task. The attack of the ^States' 
on the Negro soldier is vicious^and unpar- 
donable. There is no more intrepid or 
hardy fighter to be found anywhere than 
the much-abused descendant of Ham. He 
has dogged persistence and a determina- 
tion to conquer which triumphs over all ob- 
stacles. He is aware of his social inferiority 
and never seeks to attain positions of emi- 
nence to which his valor and his spirit of 
daring do not entitle him. The ^States' 
presents one of the most rabid cases of ne- 
grophobia extant. It should seek an imme- 
diate cure.'' 

Such indorsements from the white press 
of the country is not only timely, but for 



all time. Histoiy of his endurance and 
endeavor in peace, and his valor in war^ 
stimulates his demand and strengthens his 
claim for equal justice. Such and kindred 
books as ^'Johnson's School History of the 
Race in America'' should be prominent as 
household gods in every Afro-American 
home, that along the realm of time the 
vista of heroic effort ^'bequeathed from sire 
to son'' may gladden hearts in ^^the good 
time coming;" for it is display in endur- 
ance, a vigorous courage, a gladsome self- 
control, a triumphant self-sacrifice, that 
mankind applaud as supreme for e:S:alta- 
tion, and the highest tj^pes of self-abnega- 
tion for human advancement; for ^^before 
man made us citizens. Great Nature made 
us men." 

Equalh^ as in the realm of war has 
the race produced its noblemen in the 
arena of peace and mental development. 
For, if it be true that ^^tlie greatest names 
in historj' are those who in the full career 
and amid the turbid extremities of political 
action, have yet touched the closest and at 
most points the ever-standing problems of 
the world and the things in which the in- 
terests of men never die," our industrial 
educators are iittingiy placed. 

Of the ever-standing problem of the 
world, and in which mankind is ever alert, 
is the struggle for survival, and he that by 
inspiring word and untiring deeds leads 
the deserving poor and destitute to pros- 
perity and contentment, is entitled to un- 


Born ill Tennessee, September, 1850 — Entered Oberlin College in 1868— Graduated 
From Howard University, 1872 — A Leading Member of the Bar — Mem- 
ber of State Legislatnre of 1883— Assistant Attorney-General 
— For Integrity as a Man, Learning as a Jurist, 
and Eloquence of Appeal, He Has Made 
an Honorable Record. 



stinted praise as a great liuniaii force di- 
rected to a liigii moral purpose. While an 
advocate for the higher education of as 
many of the race who have the will or 
means to obtain it, for the majority, after 
obtaining a good English education, it 
should be immediately supplemented by a 
trade, to labor skillfully, is its great want 

The question has been asked: ^^Can any 
race safely exist in any countrj^ composed 
only of unskilled laborers and professional 
men? Must not the future leaders of our 
people come from the middle classes, from 
those who work and think?'' Education 
to be of practical advantage must not only 
sharpen the intellect, but it must be of that 
sort that Avill enable them to engage in 
pursuits and avocations above those of 
mere drudgery; those that are more lucra- 
tive, and from which accumulate wealth. 
The school room must be the stepping- 
stone to a good trade. The statement has 
been made (which may be problematical) 
that we have fewer, comparatively, very 
manj^ fewer, mechanics of all kinds now 
than we had in the days of slavery. The 
master knew that the money value of the 
slave was increased in the ratio of his effi- 
ciency as a skilled laborer. 

To the credit of Kentuckj^, Alabama, Ar- 
kansas and other Southern States, they 
have made generous provisions for indus- 
trial education by supplying machinery 
and the most modern appliances to teach 


i^killed labor to those wlio prefer them to 
the white apron of the waiter or the grub- 
bing hoe of the plantation. Of the stu- 
dents that graduate from our higli schools 
and colleges there are those who have not 
the qualities of head and heart essential 
tfor teaching and preaching, including a 
love and devotion to those callings, and 
possibly would have been shining marks 
had their studies fitted them to graple with 
the mercantile or industrial factors that 
promise a future more independent and 

The advancement of any race in morals 
and culture is retarded when poor and de- 
pendent. It is indespensable to i)rogress 
that' it has the benefit of earnings laid by. 
Jt is therefore to these industrial features 
that we must look for the foundation of 
advancement for the race. It Avill not be 
found at either extreme of our present avo- 
cations; neither the attainment of the pro- 
fessions, nor devotion to menial labor will 
.^olve the problem of the ^^better way.-' A 
greater number must be fitted to obtain 
work more lucrative in character and more 
ennobling in effect. Institutions of applied 
science and business pursuits seem to me 
the great doorway to ultimate success. 
Economy and industries of this kind will 
more rapidh^ produce the means to achieve 
that higher education for the race so de- 
sirable. Morality, learning and Avealth are 

trio invincible. 



To content ourselves with denouncing in- 
justice is to fail to enlist the economic fea- 
tures so necessary as assistants. For amid 
all our disadvantages we are to a large ex- 
tent arbiters of our fortunes, for we can 
hj an indomitable will dispel many, many 
seeming mountains that encumber our 
way. But we have much to unlearn, and 
especially that the road to financial pros- 
perity is not chiefly the dictum of the fa- 
cile mouth, but through the manifestation 
of skilled hands and routine of business 
methods, however much the mouth may 
attempt to compete, conscious of its wealth 
of assertion and extent of capacity. While 
it is eminently proper we should strive for 
the administration of equitable laAvs for 
our protection, it should be ever remem- 
bered that while local laws under our con- 
stitutional government are supposed to be 
the equity of public opinion, for us they 
are not sustained unless in harmony with 
feelings and sentiments of their environ- 
ments. Our work as a dependent element 
is plainly to use such, and only such, meth- 
ods as will sustain or create the sentiment 
desired by a fraternization of business and 
material interests. This we cannot do either 
in the arena of politics or the status of the 
menial laborer. For in the one, when the 
polls are closed, we are continuously re- 
minded of "Othello's occupation gone.-' In 
the other, the abundance of raw and un- 
couth labor robs it of its vitality as a force 
to compel conditions. 



The sijirit in wiiicli these ^^schools of 
trade'' have been conceived, and the suc- 
cess of tlieir conduct, indicate they have 
struck a responsive chord in the communi- 
ties where local approval is a necessity. 
Constituting an agreeable counterpoise to 
the fixed determination of the white j)eople 
of the South that within its purview the 
Xegro, however worthy, shall not occupy 
political prominence. This, while diamet- 
rically opposed to the genius and spirit of 
republican government, may yet be the 
boomerang, beneficent in its return, re- 
dounding to his advantage by turning the 
current of his aspirations to trades and 
business activities rich with promise of 
material and ennobling fame. From this 
point of view history records the Jew as a 
shining example. The Xegro, constitution- 
ally buoj'ant, should be energetic and hope- 
ful, for ^^there is a destiny that shapes our 
ends,'' blunt them however much by 
damning with faint praise" or apology for 
oppression from whilom friends. In the 
darkest hour of slavery and ignorance 
came freedom and education. When lynch- 
ings became prevalent, lynching of whites^ 
made it unpopular; when disfranchisement 



came, debasing liim in localities as a factor 
in civil goyernment, came elevation and 
liigli honor ungrndgingiy bestowed for he- 
roic deeds by commanders of the national 

President McKinley, in his order for the 
enlistment and promotion of the colored 
soldier in the Spanish war, added addi- 
tional luster to his page in history, it being 
an act the result of which has been of in- 
estimable value to the race. Just and in- 
spiring is the speech of Hon. Charles H. 
Grosvenor, of Ohio, delivered at the close 
of the 56tli Congress, entitled ^^The 
Colored Citizen; His Share in the Aflfairs 
of the Nation in the Years of 1897 to 1900. 
Fifteen thousand participated in the war. 
The President's generous treatment of col- 
ored men in the military and civil service 
of the Covernmenf 

General Grosvenor commences with an 
exordium eloquent in succinctness and no- 
ble in generosity. ^"I cannot let pass this 
opportunit}^ at the close of a long session 
of Congress, and at the end of three years^ 
of this Administration, without putting on 
record to enlighten future generations the 
history of the part which the colored citi- 
zen has had in the stirring events of this 
remarkable period. It is a period in tiie 
history of the country of which future gen- 
erations will be proud, as are those of to- 
day, and as the colored citizens of the 
United States have participated nobly in 



it, it is but just to them that the facts be 
put on record. 

want to speak of his part in the war 
in Cuba, in Porto Kico, in the Pliilippines. 
AVould a war with Spain benefit the Negro? 
was a popular cpiestion for debate. Home 
thought it wouhl benefit, others thouglit 
not. In many respects it has been a God- 
send and beyond dispute a great benefit. 
If in no other way, 15,048 privates have 
shown their patriotism and their valor by 
offering their bared breasts as shields for 
the country's honor; 4,114 regulars did ac- 
tual, noble and heroic service at El Caney, 
San Juan and Santiago, while 2(U) officers 
(261 volunteers and fivi* rc^gulars) did sim- 
ilar service and demonstrated the ability of 
the American Negro to [)roperly command 
ever so well, as lu^ do(^s n^idily obey.'' 

General Grosvenor then pertinently 
adds: ^^Wlien we learn to appreciate the 
fact that three years ago the Negro had in 
the army only five officers and 4,114 i)ri- 
vates, and that one year ago Ik* had 
officers and 15,048 privates, w(* must know 
that inestimable benefit has come to the 
race. Among the officers are to be found 
many of the brightest minds of the race. 
Fully 80 per cent of those in authoi-ity 
come from the best known and most infiu- 
ential families in the land. Their contact 
Avith and influence upon their superior of- 
ficers will be sure to raise the Negro in the 
popular esteem and do an incalculable 



Reference is made to disburseiiieuts to 
NegTo officers and soldiers during the 
Spanish war, which he colates to be 
$5,000,000; adding the salaries of those em- 
ployed in the civil service brings up to a 
sum exceeding |6,000,000 paid the Negro 
citizen. This, coupled with the high honor 
attached to such military designations as 
colonels, lieutenants and captains con- 
ferred upon him, shed a halo of generosity 
over President McKinley's Administration. 

General Grosvenor is richly entitled to 
and received a just meed of praise for the 
great service he has done by putting this 
grand array of fact and heroic deed in pop- 
ular form, and tliereby strengthening the 
Negro appeal for justice and opportunity, 
while its pages are a noble contribution to 
a valor that will illumine Negro history 
for all time. It was most opportune, for 
the then pressing need to strengthen the 
weak and recall tlie recalcitrants who in- 
discriminately charge the party with being' 
remiss in requiting and acknowledging 
the Negro's devotion. The well-earned 
plaudits for his bravery on the battlefield 
should widen the area of his conscious- 
ness, intensify conviction that mediocrity 
is a drug in every human activity, for 
whether in the professions, literature, agri- 
culture or trades, it is excellence alone that 
counts and will bring recognition, despite 
the frowning battlements of caste. As we 
become more and more valued factors in 
the common cause of the general welfare^ 



that the flexibility of AiiH^ricaii sentiment 
on conviction of merit will be more appar- 
owt we cannot bnt beli(n'e; for conditions 
secMn to have sni'inonnt(Ml hivv and s(M'k 
Hmmt (>\y\\ solution, sinc(^ th(* supr^Mni^ hiw 
of the land s(MMns in(dT(M tnal and local scn- 
tiin(*nt the arbit(M', when ih(* Xc^jiio is 

In th(^ tii'st scclion of Arlich* It of ihe 
Constitntion we ha\(*: ''All jx^i-sons born 
or natnraliz(Ml in the Tnitcd St;U(*s and 
snl)j(M*t to tin* jui'isdicl ion thcirol' ;ire rit- 
izens of tln^ TnitcMl Stat(*s and of the sc^'- 
eial Stat(^s wli(M*ein they reside. \o Suite 
shall (Miforce any law which shall ahridjj^e 
1h(* ])ri vil(\i;(^s or ininninities of citizens of 
the TnitcMl States." To nentializ<^ this [)ro- 
nounccMl and niH'(|nivocal h^^^islat ion w(* 
have the dictnni of the Snpr(Mn(* Conrt of 
th(^ United States thai iliis ((Mist it ntional 
ri^ht, so plainly sel foi l h, can b(* h^ually 
abro};at(Ml by a State con\(*ntion or h^uisla- 
tnre. While fi-om tln^ pr(Mnis(\s stated the 
conclnsion may be evident to a jnrist, to 
th(^ layman it is pcM plexin^; and while bow- 
ing- in (d)eyance to this conrt of last ri^sort, 
lu^ cannot bnt admire^ the jmlieial aj^ility 
in (\scapinii tlu* probhMn. lie is i(Mnind(Ml 
of a final rc^sponsi^ loncliinu the character 
and standing of a chnrch membiM- of whom 
the in(]nir(^r wislu^s to know. The reply 
Avas: ''Jirother 1>. is (jnite ])rominent and 
well known here." 'AVell, what is his stand- 
ing?-' ^'Oh, very high ; he is the elder of onr 
chnrch and snperintendent of the Snnday 


Chief Justioo of tlu- Unitod States, 
r.oni in Koniueky— A ( oloiii'l in tlio Uiiion Anny — Caiulidato for Vice-President 
of tlio T'liited States^ — One of the Forenn^sr Anthorities on Constitu- 
tional I.MW - Learned and I nii).irtial. 




school.'' "Yefi, but as I am thinking of 
having >sonie business dealings with him, 
Avhat I Avant to know is, how does he stand 
for credit and promptness?^' ''Well, 
♦stranger, if you put it that way, I must say 
that heavenward liro. H. is all right, but 
earthward he is rather twistical." Ordi- 
nary ward, tlie Su])renu^ Court is all rigiit; 
but Negroward, twistical. 

For the law-abiding citizens of these 
Commonwealths Ave have this other, the 
second section of the same article: ''When 
the right to vote at any election for the 
choice of electors for l^resident or Vice- 
President of the United States, Ivepresenta- 
tives in Congress, the executive or judicial 
ofticers of a State, or the members of the 
legislature thereof, is denied to any one of 
the male inhabitants of such State being 
twenty-one years of age and a citizen of 
the T'nited States, or in any way abridged, 
except for participation in rebellion or 
other crimes, the basis of representation 
thereon shall be reduced in the proportion 
which the number of such male citizens 
>^hall bear to the whole number of male 
citizens twentv-one vears of age in such 

If, as avowed, that it is for the welfare of 
such Southern States that they desire to 
banish the Negro from politics, can welfare 
be promoted or national integrity sustained 
by such rank injustice, as their Members of 
Congress occupying seats therein, or hav- 
ing representation in the electoral college 



based iipou au apportionment in which the 
Negro numerically is so prominent a fac- 
tor, and in the exercise of rights pertain- 
ing thereto, lie is a nonentity. 

^'The Baptist Watchman" takes this un- 
assailable position of this misrule: *'Ex- 
Governor Nortlien, of Georgia, in his ad- 
dress before the Congregational Club the 
other evening, declared that the status of 
the black race in tiie South was that of 
permanent dependence upon the white 
race. The central point of his contention 
is that capacity to rule confers thc^ right to 
rule. The white man can giv(^ the black 
man a better government that Ik^ can give 
himself; therefore, the black man should 
be glad to receive tlu^ blessing at tin* hands 
of the Avliite man. For our part, we be- 
lieve that, whatever specious defcMise on 
the ground of philanthroi)y, civilization 
and iH^ligion may made for this position, 
it is radically repugnant to the genius of 
American institutions. If the men of the 
nation who are best qualified to rule have 
a right to rule, they themselvi^s being the 
judge of their (]ualifications, England or 
Kussia would be justified in attempting to 
impose their sovereignty on the United 
^^tates, if they thought they could give us 
a better government than we are apt to 
give ourselves. Unless the doctrine is vig- 
orously maintained that governments 'de- 
rive their just powers from the consent of 
the governed,' and not from the conceit 
of an aristocracy as to its own capacity, 



then Ave of the North will not find it easy 
to protest effectively against the disfran- 
chisement of the Southern Negroes." 

But the issue will not be made in opposi- 
tion to a great national party that draws 
a large measure of its strength from the 
South till disaster from material issues 
compel. With the Republican party (as of 
a Christmas morning) '^ever^^thing is lovely 
and the goose hangs high;'' but discom- 
fiture, sometimes laggard, is ever attend- 
ant on direlection of duty. This usurpa- 
tion, which should have been throttled 
when a babe, has now become a giant seat- 
ed in its castle, compelling deference and 
acquiescence to an anomaly, reaching be- 
yond the Negro in its menace to repre- 
sentative government. 

And now, while from inertia the Repub- 
lican party has been privy to this misrepre- 
sentation, prominent Northern leaders are 
trying to take advantage of their own ne- 
glect in an attempt to reduce representa- 
tion in national conventions from South- 
ern States, irregularly Democratic. But 
the friends of just government need not 
despond, for the political and industrial 
revolution which the war for the perpetua- 
tion of the Union and the basic principle 
of equity it evolved will continue to de- 
mand and eventually secure equal rights 
for all beneath the flag. 





Now, on the eve of my departure from 
Madagascar, and approaching four years 
of consular intercourse, I have only pleas- 
ant memories. My relations with Gen. 
eral Gallieni, Governor-General of the Isl- 
and, and his official family, have ever been 
most cordial. On learning of my intended 
departure, he yerj graciously wrote me, as 
follows : 

Madagascar and Dependencies. 


Tananirivo, 19th Mch., 1901. 

My Dear Consul: 

I learn with much displeasure of your 
early departure from Madagascar, and 
would have been very glad to have met you 
again at the beginning of May, when going 
down to the coast. But I always intend 
to take a trip to America, and perhaps may 
find an opportunity to see you again in 
your i)owerful and flourishing country, 
which I wish so much to know. I thank 
you very much for your kind letter, and re- 
ciprocate. I had always with you the best 
relations, and I could appreciate your 



friendly and liiglily estimable character, 
and regret yonr departure. I have read 
with great pleasure your biographical 
sketch, and I see that you have already 
rendered many valuable services to your 
country, where your name is known very 
honorably. Yours faithfully, 


Socially, as a member of the ^^Circle 
Francais'' (a club of the elite of the French 
residents, a constant recipient of its socia- 
bility, the urbanity and kindness of Messrs. 
Proctor Brothers, Messrs. Dadubhoy & Co., 
and Messrs. Oswold & Co., representing, re- 
i^pectively, the leading English and Ger- 
man mercantile firms in the island, con- 
tributed much in making life enjoyable at 
that far-awaj^ post. My official life in Mad- 
agascar was not without its lights and 
shadows, and the latter sometimes ^^paled 
the ineffectual rays'^ of belated instruc- 
tions. Of an instance I may make mention. 
1 was in receipt of a cablegram from the 
Department of State advising me that the 
flagship ''Chicago,^' with Admiral Howi- 
son, would at an early date stop at Tama- 
tave and instructing me to obtain what 
wild animals I could indigenous to Mada- 
gascar and have them ready to ship there- 
by for the Smithsonian Institute, at 
Washington, D. C. How I responded, and 
the result of the response, is attempted to 
be set forth in the following dispatch to 
the Department of State: 



Consulate of the United States, 

Tamatave, Madagascar, July 3, 1899. 

Mr. Gibbs to the Department of State. 

Madagascar Branch of Smithsonian Insti- 

A GonsuFs ^^Burden.'' 

Abstract of Contents: 

Procuration of Live Animals, as per Order 
of the Department, and Declination of 
the Admiral to Eeceive Them on Board. 

Honorable Assistant Secretary of State, 

Washington, D. 0, 
Sir: — Kef erring to your cablegram under 
date of May 22d last, directing me to secure 
live animals for the Smithsonian Institu- 
tute, to be sent home on the flagship ^^Chi- 
cago'^ on its arrival at this port, I have to- 
report that I proceeded with more or less 
trepidation to accomplish the same, the 
wild animals of Madagascar being exceed- 
ingly alive. With assistance of natives I 
succeeded, after much trouble and expense,, 
in obtaining twelve, had them caged and 
brought to the consulate weeks before the 
arrival of the ship. This, I regret to say^ 
was a misadventure. I should have lo- 
cated them in the woods and pointed them 
out to the Admiral on his arrival. At first 
they seemed to agree, and were tractable 
until a patriotic but unlucky impulse in- 



duced me to give them the names of a few 
prominent Generals in the late war. After 
that, oh, my! 

The twelve consist of different varieties. 
One of the twelve seems a cross of panther 
and wild cat, and rejoices in the appela- 
tion of "Aye Aye.^^ 

On the arrival of the "Chicago/' forth- 
with I reported to Admiral Howison my 
success in capturing "these things of beau- 
ty/' and eternal terrors, and my desire 
that they change domicile. He received 
me with such charming suavity, and my 
report with so many tender expressions of 
sympathy for the monkeys that I got a lit- 
tle mixed as to his preference. Still joy- 
smitten, I was ill-prepared for the an- 
nouncement "that it was unwise to take 
them, as it was impossible to procure food 
to keep them alive until the termination of 
the voyage.'' 

It was then, Mr. Secretary, that I sadly 
realized that I was confronted by a condi- 
tion. Over seventy years of age, 10,000 
miles from home, a beggarly salary, with 
a menagerie on my hands, while bank- 
ruptcy and a humbled flag threatened to 
stare me in the face. There remained 
nothing for me, but to "bow to the inevi- 
table," transpose myself into a committee 
of ways and means for the purpose of se- 
curing sleep for my eyelids and a saving to 
the United States Treasury. For while 
ever loyal to "the old flag and an appro- 
priation," a sense of duty compels me to 



advise that this branch of the Smithsoiiion 
Institute is of doubtful utility. 

With a desire to avoid, if possible, ^'the 
deej) damnation of their takinj^-iiff/' by 
starvation, several i>lans promising relief 
suggested themselves, viz: Sell them, 
turn them loose, or kee]> them at Govern- 
ment expi^nsi*. 1 v(^rv mueli regret tliat 
the latter course 1 shall be compelled to 
adopt. My many otters to sell seemed not 
understood, as th(* only response* I have 
yet received has b(*en: '4 g(*t you more 
like him, I can.'' As to turning them loose, 
I have been warned by the local authori- 
ties that if I did so I would do so at my 
peril. A n(M(*ssai-y i)ar( of diet for (li(*se 
aninmls is condcMised milk, nu^at, bread, 
jam, and bananas, but they are not con- 
tent. Having Ixmmi a uhmiiIxm- of the bar, 
and retaining miicii vcMUM-aiion for the 
Quixotic capers of judicial twelv(\ on tlnor 
desire to leave I ''poUcMl" th(Mii and found 
a hung jury, swinging by th(Mr tails; 
eleven indicat(Ml *'ay(\" but tln^ twcdfth, 
with his double altirmative cry of **Aye, 
Aye,'' being equal to negative, hung them 
up. ]\[eanwhil(s th(\v bid fair to be a i>(M- 
manent exhibit. 

Under cover of even date I enclose ac- 
count for animals' food and attention to 
June 30, and beg to say regarding the item 
of food, that I anticipate a monthly in- 
crease of cost, as the appetite of the ani- 
mals seem to improve in captivity. I con- 
clude, Mr. Secretary, with but a single so- 



lace: They may possibly eat oft* their 
heads, but their tails give abuudaut prom- 
ise of remaiiiiug in evidence. Patiently 
awaiting instructions as the the future dis- 
position of these Avild and wayward wards 
of the Government, I have the honor to be, 
Your obedient servant, 

U. S. Consul. 

How and when '4 got rid of my burden'' 
and the joyous expressions of a long-suf- 
fering Government on the event, will (or 
will not) ^'be continued in our next.'- 

Having asked for leave of absence, and 
leaving ^Ir. William H. Hunt, the Vice- 
Consul, in charge of the consulate, on the 
3d of April, 1891, I took passage on the 
French steamer, "Yantse,'' for Marseilles, 




April 3, 1901. — It was not without re- 
gret, that found expression at a banquet 
given me on the eve preceding my depart- 
ure, by Mr. Erlington, the German Consul 
at Tamatave, that I took my leave of Mad- 
agascar, when the flags of the officials of 
the French Residency and flags of all the 
foreign consuls were flying, honoring me 
with a kindl}^ farewell. A jolly French 
friend of mine, who came out to the steam- 
er to see me off, said: Judge, don't you be 
too sure of the meaning of the flags flying 
at your departure from Tamatave, for we 
•demonstrate here for gladness, as well as 
for regret.-' "Well,'' I replied, "in either 
event I am in unison Avith the sentiment 
intended to be expressed; for I have both 
gladness and regret — gladness with antic- 
ipations of home, and with regret that, in 
all human probability, I am taking leave 
of a community from whom for nearly four 
years I have been the recipient, officially, 
of the highest respect; and socially of un- 
stinted friendliness." 

I found Yice-Consul Hunt had secured 
and had had my baggage placed in a de- 
i^traMe state room. The ringing of the bell 


A Distinguished Colored Writer— Author of '^The House Behind the Ce<l.irs, 
"The \Aife of My Youih," "The Conjure Woman." "The Morrow ot 
Tradition"— All Sparkling with Justice, Wisdom, and Wit. 



notified all non-passengers ashore. After 
lieartT handshakes from the Viee-Consul, 
German. French, and other friends, taking 
with them a bottle or two of wine that had 
been previonslv placed where it would do 
the most good, they took the consular boat, 
and with the Stars and Stripes flying, 
and handkerchiefs waving a final fare- 
well, they were pulled ashore. The anchor 
weighs, and the good ship "Yantse" in- 
hales a long, moist, and heated breath and 
commences to walk with stately strides 
and quickened pace — weather charming 
and the sea as quiet as a tired child. The 
next day a stop at the Island of St. Maria, 
a French possession, and on the fifth day 
at Deigo Suarez, on the north end of Mada- 

On the ninth day from Tamatave we en- 
tered the Gulf of Aden, and after some 
houi^s dropped anchor at Camp Aden, in 
Arabia. Mr. Byramzie, a Tamatave friend 
of mine, and of the London firm of Dadab- 
hoy & Co., with a branch at Aden, came off 
to meet me and accompany me ashore. 
Camp Aden is a British fortification I can- 
not readily describe with reference to its 
topography or the heterogenous character 
and pursuits of its inhabitants. Nature 
was certainly in no passive mood when 
last it flung its constituents together; for, 
with the exception of a few circling acres 
forming a rim around the harbor, high, 
broken, and frowning battlements of rock, 
ungainly and sterile, look down upon you 



as far as the eye can reach. No sprijj;, or 
tree, or blade of f^rass takes root in its 
parclied soil or stony bed, or survives the 
blastinf^ heat. Scattered and dotted on 
cra^, liillto]) or sloi)e, in j^larinj*- white, are 
the many offices an<l residence buildings 
of the canii). While in hidden crevices and 
forbidden paths are planted tlie most ap- 
proved armauHMit, with its 'Sh);4s of war'' 
to dispute a passaj»(* from tli(^ (Julf. 

In a dilapidated four-\viieehn% drawn by 
one horse, after considerabh^ time spent by 
my friend in a<»r(M4nj4 on tcMins (concern- 
in<4- wliicli J i)aus(* to remark that thes(^ b(*- 
ni}>hted Jehus can give a Bowery cabman 
points on ''how not to do it''), ov(*r a nmc- 
adam road of fiv(^ mih^s we ivaeh Aden 
proper — tlu* sit(* of hot(ds, storeys and resi- 
dences with litth^ pret(Misions to ar< hire<*- 
tural beauty; the buihlings are quite all 
constructed of ston(% that mat(*rial being in 
superabundance^ on rvm-y int(Mi(hMl site; 
their massive walls contributing to a cool 
interior indispcMisabh^ as a refug<* from the 
blistering heat. Pure water for di-inking is 
a luxury, spasmodic in its su])i)ly. 1 once 
heard an hilaiious Irish song that stated: 

^^We are jolly and hai)py, foi* know 

without doubt. 
That the whisky is plenty, and tlu^ water 

is out.'' 

This, I learn is the normal condition at 
Aden as to the relative status of whisky 
and water^ — a very elysium for the to)>er 



who could not uuderstaud why whisky 
should be spoiled by mixiug it with watei*. 

liaius are infrequent and well water un- 
palatable. 8ea water is distilled, but the 
mineral and healtli-givin.u' qualities are 
said to be absent. The water highly prized 
and sold is the rainwater caught in tanks. 
Hollowed out at the foot of the rock hills, 
there are numbers of peculiar construction, 
connected and on ditt'erent elevations. But 
for tlie hist three years the non-rainfall has 
kept them without a tenant. As I looked 
in them not a drop sparkled witthin their 
capacious confines; they are seldom filleil, 
and the supply is ever deficient. The pop 
ulation is from (),()()() to S,(MM), amid which 
the Parsee, the Mohammedan, Jew, 
Portuguese, and other nationalities com- 
pete for the commerce of the interior. The 
natives are of varied castes, the Samiles 
the most energetic and prevailing type. 
The inferior classes go about almost naked 
and live in long, unprepossessing struc- 
tures, one story high, divide<l into single 
rooms, rude and uncleanly. 

While at Aden I availed myself of the 
honor and pleasure of a visit to the Ameri- 
can Consulate, and received a warm, jolly, 
and spiritual welcome from the incumbent, 
the Hon. E. T. Cunningham, of Knoxville, 
Tenn. Mr. Cunningham intended to stay 
at Aden for six months. Like "linked 
sweetness long drawn out, "thatperiod has 
extended to three years, and is now "los- 
ing its sweetness on the desert air.'' He 



stated that he was not iufatuated with 
those "scarlet days'^ and "Arabian nights/' 
and is seeking relief or placement amid 
more congenial surroundings, where dis- 
tance (does not) "lend enchantment to the 
view/' But I assured him the Department 
was as astute as selfish. It knows when it 
has a good tiling, and endeavors to keep it. 
Mr. Cunningham has proved himself to be 
an efficient and trusted official. We parted 
with mutual hope of again meeting in "the 
land of the cotton and the corn.'- 

On my way to tlie hinding I passiMl many 
convoys of camels and asses, laden with 
coffee, it being one of the main articles of 
export. • Arriving at the steamc^r an<l bid- 
ding my Parsee friend a last, long fare- 
well, shortly we weighed auchoi* and away 
for a five days sail to Suez. 

On the 17th of April, eventful (o me, be- 
ing my birthday, W(^ arrivcMl at Su(v. for a 
short stay, witliout tinu^ or inclination to 
go ashore. But, seeing the Stars and 
Stripes fiying from a shij) lying in tlu* dis- 
tance, I could not withstand tlu^ tempta- 
tion. Jumping into a native sailboat that 
described every point of the conii>iiss with 
oars and adverse wind, I reached the 
United States cruiser, 'VXew York." Capt. 
Rodgers and his gentlemanly officers gave 
me a very cordial reception, ensuring an 
enjoyable visit. Capt. Bodgei's informed 
me that Lieutenant Poundstone was 
aboard, who knew me as a "promoter" for 
Ihe Smithsonian Institute at Washington, 



he having* been aboard the ^'Chicago" 
when it visited Tamatave, and when Ad- 
miral Howison declined to convey my ''gay 
and festive'- collection of wild animals to 
America. I would be most happj^ to see 
him. He soon appeared Avith pleasant 
greetings and recollections of Taniatave 
incidents. My stay from ship being lim- 
ited, after a chat, mingled Avith sherry and 
cigars and an expression of regret from 
Capt Tiodgers that, not being in our ^'bail- 
iwick,'' he could not give me a consular sa- 
lute from his guns, he ordered the ship's 
steam launch, and, escorted by the Lieu- 
tenant, un(l(M* our national banner, I soon 
boarded my shii). 1 was much indebted to 
Capt. Kodgers and officers for their charm- 
ing courtesj'. 

Leaving Suez at mid-day, we shortly en- 
ter the Suez Canal — 85 miles, with numer- 
ous tie-ups to allow other ships the right of 

At 8 o'clock the following morning we 
dropped anchor at Port Said, a populous 
city of Arabia with 30,000 inhabitants, 
much diversified as to nativities, Turks, 
Assyrians, Jcavs, and Greeks being largely 
represented. The city is quite prepossess- 
ing, and seems to have improved its sani- 
tar}^ features since my visit four years ago. 
There are many charming views; an inter- 
esting place for the tourist, alike for the 
virtuous and the vicious, for those so in- 
clined can see human nature ''unadorned.'^ 
Wide streets pierce the city, the stores on 



wliicli are a continuous bazaar, lined with 
many exquisite productions of necessity 
and Eastern art. But I liave previously 
dwelt on Tort Said peculiarities. 

Leaving Port Said on the 18th, our good 
ship soon enters the Mediterran(*an, and 
with smooth seas i)asses throuj^li the 
Straits of Messina, with a tine* vi(MV of Mt. 
Etna, as of yore, belching forth llanu^s an<l 
smoke, with Sicily on oui- left and Italy 
and her cities on our right. Again enter- 
ing the Mediterran(*an, we (MicountcM* our 
first rough seas and diminution of guests 
at the table. Neptune, who had b(MMi len- 
ient for 17 days, now demand(Ml settlement 
before digestion should again be allowed 
to resume its sway. I 'or myself, 1 was like 
and unlike the impecunious boanler, who 
'^never misscnl a nnnil nor i)aid a (-(Mit/' but 
like him only in constant att(Midanc(\ for 
I could ill-afford to miss any part of the 
pleasure of transit or menu costing flO a 
day — liappj , however, that I was minus 
^^mal de ukm*/' seasickness. Hut this tem- 
porary ailment of the passeng(n*s was soon 
banished by another phase of ocean travel, 
that of being enveloped in a fog so dense 
that the ship's length could not be seen 
ahead from the bow — (^very officer of the 
ship alert, the fog horn blowing its warn- 
ings at short intervals, answered by the 
"ships that pass in the night" of fogs. The 
anxiety of the passengers that the fog 
would lift was relieved after 36 hours, and 
our ship hied away and reached Marsielles 



on the 23cl. From there by rail to Paris. 
Ensconced aii,ain at the ^"Hotel Binda,'' the 
next day I visited the site of the great 
Paris Exposition. Few of the bnildings 
were in their entirety, bnt Avhat remained 
of the classic beauty of their construction 
shone the more vivid amid the debris of 
demolition that surrounded them. The 
French were not enthusiastic in relation to 
the linancial benight of the exposition. 

A few days in Paris, and thence to Cher- 
bourg to cross the English Channel to 
Southampton, London. This channel, 
whicli has a well-merited reputation for 
being gay and frolicsome, Avas exteremely 
gracious, allowing us to glide over its 
placid bosom with scarce a tremor. 




This was my first visit to the land of Wil- 
berforces and Clarksons of the seyenteenth 
century^ whose devotion and fidelity to 
liberty abolished African slavery in Brit- 
ain's dominion and created the sentiment 
that found expression in the immortal ut- 
terance of Judge Mansfield's decision; 
"Slaves cannot breathe in England; upon 
touch of its soil they stand forth redeemed 
and regenerated by the genuis of universal 
liberty.'' With my English friend, C. B. 
Hurwitz, as an escort, I enjoyed an excur- 
sion on the Thames, and visited many 
places of note, including England's vet- 
eran bank, designated as the "Old Lady of 
Threadneedle Street," and the Towers of 
London. One of these, the Beauchamp 
Tower, is supposed to have been built in 
the twelfth or thirteenth century, the arch- 
itecture corresponding with that in use at 
that period, and lately restored to its orig- 
inal state. Herein are many inscriptions,, 
some very rude, others quite artistic. It 
was during the restoration that these in- 
scriptions were partial discovered and 
carefully preserved. They were cut in the 
stone walls and partitions b}^ the unhappy 


occupants, confined for life or execution 
for tlieir religion or rebellion in the thir- 
teenth to the sixteenth century. Many 
are adorned with rude devices and inscrip- 
tions denoting the undying faith of the 
martyr; others the wailing of distress and 
despair. Five hundred years have elapsed, 
3^et the sadness of the crushed hearts of 
the unhappy occupants still lingers like a 
funeral pall to point a moral that should 
strengthen tolerance and cherish liberty. 

Leaving Southampton, London, on the 
steamship St. Louis, after an uneventful 
passage I arrived in New York, and from 
thence to Washington, D. C. After my 
leave of absence had expired, I decided not 
to return to Madagascar. For after nearly 
four years' dalliance with the Malagash fe- 
ver in the spring and dodging the bubonic 
plague in the fall, I concluded that Mada- 
gascar was a good place to come from, 

W\ H. Hunt, the Vice-Consul, who had 
filed application for the Consulship, condi- 
tioned upon my resignation, was appointed. 
An admirable appointment, for the duties 
pertaining thereto, I have no doubt, will be 
performed with much credit to himself and 
to the satisfaction of the Government. 

I was honored as a delegate to a very in- 
teresting assembly of colored men from 
32 States, designated the ^^National Negro 
Business Men's League,'' which met in Chi- 
cago, 111., Aug. 27, 1901. Of its object and 
labor's my conclusions were: That no bet- 




ter evidence can be prodnced that the ne- 
gro has a good hold on the lever which will 
not only give a self-conscionsness of latent 
powers, but will surely elevate him in the 
estimation of his fellw-citizens, than the 
increasing interest he is taking and engag- 
ing in many of the business ventures of the 
country, and the popular acquiescence 
manifested by the crowded attendance at 
every session of the meeting. 

The President of the League, Booker T. 
Washington, expressed the following 
golden thoughts in his opening speech: 

"As a race we must learn more and 
more that the opinion of the world regard- 
ing us is not much influenced hj what we 
may say of ourselves, or by what others 
say of us, but it is permanently 
influenced by actual, tangible, visible 
results. The object-lesson of one honest 
Negro succeeding magnificently in each 
community in some business or Indus trj^ is 
worth a hundred abstract speeches in se- 
curing opportunity for the race. 

"In the South, as in most parts of the 
world, the Negro who does something and 
possesses something is respected by both 
races. Usefulness in the communit}- where 
we live will constitute our most lasting 
and potent protection. 

"We want to learn the lesson of small 
things and small beginnings. We must not 
feel ourselves above the most humble oc- 
cupation or the simple, humble beginning. 
Tf our vision is clear, our will strong, we 



will use the very obstacles that often seem 
to beset us as stepping-stones to a higher 
and more useful life/^ 

The enrollment of the members present 
was not completed at the first session, but 
the hall was crowded and 200 of those 
present were yisitors in Chicago. Pictures 
and some of the pro-duct of Negro concerns 
decorated the walls, as evidence that the 
black man is rising above the cotton plan- 
tation, his first field of labor in this coun- 
try. Pictures of brick blocks, factories, 
livery stables, farms and shops of every 
description owned by Negroes in many dif- 
ferent States of the Union were in the col- 
lection, but the greater evidence of the Ne- 
gro's development were the men taking 
part in the deliberations of the sessions. 
They are clean cut, well-dressed, intelli- 
gent, and have put a business method into 
the organization. 

The Governor of the State and Mayor of 
Chicago were represented with stirring ad- 
dresses of welcome. The convention was 
singular and peculiar in this: The central 
idea of the meeting was scrupulously ad- 
hered to; there was present no disposition 
to refer to grievances or deprivations. A 
feeling seemed to permeate the partici- 
pants of confidence and surety that they 
had fathomed the depths of much that 
stood in the way of a just recognition of 
Negro worth and a just appreciation and 
resolution to ^^fight it out on that line if it 
took all summer,'' or many summers. 



There were so many expressions so full 
of wisdom; so many suggestions practical 
and adaptable, I would, had I space, re- 
cord them all here. 

Theodore Jones, of Chicago, a successful 
business man, in concluding an able paper,^ 
*'Can a Negro Succeed as a Business Man,'^ 
said : 

**The tone of this convention clearh^ indi- 
cates that the Negro will succeed as a 
business man in proportion as he leams 
that manhood and womanhood are quali- 
ties of his own making, and that no exter- 
nal forces can either give or take them 
away. It demonstrates that intelligence, 
punctuality, industry, and integrity are the 
conquering forces in the business and com- 
mercial world, as well as in all the affairs 
of human life.' ■ 

Giles B. Jackson, Secretary of the Busi- 
ness League of Virginia, read a paper on 
^*Negro Industries,'^ showing what had 
been done toward the solution of the so- 
called '^Negro problem.-' The Negroes, he 
stated, had^ 114,000,000 invested in busi- 
ness enterprises in Virginia. 

AYilliam L. Taylor, President of the 
^True Keformers' Bank," of Eichmond, 
Va., gave interesting details in an able and 
intelligent effort, of the aims and accom- 
plishments of that successful institution,, 
presenting many phases of the enterprise 
— its branch stores, different farms, hotel 
and printing department, giving employ- 



ment to more than 100 officers, clerks, and 
employees. Dr. E. H. Boyd, of Xashville, 
Tenn., the head of the "^^Colored Publishing 
Company, of Xashville,'' employing 123 as- 
sistants, delivered an able address on the 
^^Negro in the Publishing Business/^ 
which was discussed with marked ability 
by the Rev. Dr. Morris, of Helena, Ark. 

All the paticipants are worthy of a meed 
of praise for their many helpful utterances 
and manly deportment. Prominent among 
them were Charles Banks, merchant and a 
large property owner of Clarkesdale, Miss., 
who spoke on "Merchandizing''; William 
O. Murphy, of Atlanta, Ga., on the "Gro- 
-eery Business"; Harris Barrett, of Hamp- 
ton, Va., on "The Building and Loan As- 
sociation of Hampton, Va."; A. X. John- 
son, publisher and editor, of Mobile, on 
"The Xegro Business Enterprises of Mo- 
bile''; F. D. Patterson, of Greenfield, Ohio, 
on "Carriage Manufacturing''; Martin Fer- 
guson on "Livery Business,'- small in stat- 
ure, light in weight, but herculean in size 
and heavy in force of persistency, told how 
by self-denial he had gained a fair compe- 
tency; L. G. Wheeler, of Chicago, 111., on 
"^^Merchant Tailoring"; Willis S. Stearns, 
-a druggist, of Decatur, Ala., in his address 
stated that 14 years ago there was not a 
^fegro druggist in that State; now there 
^re over 200 such stores owned by colored 
men in various cities of that State, with an 
Invested capital of §500,000. Walter P. 
Hall, of Philadelphia, Pa., an extensive 



dealer iu game and poultry, spoke on that 

And possibly as a fitting wind-up, as. all 
sublunary things must come to an end, 
George E. Jones, of Little Eock, Ark., and 
G. E. Kussel, of St. Louis, Mo., under- 
takers, spoke pathetically to their fellow- 
members of the League (I trust not expec- 
tantly) of the advance in the science of em- 
balming and other facilities for conveying 
them to that ^^bourne from which no trav- 
eller returns.'' The session was "a feast 
of reason and a flow of souP' from its com- 
mencement until its close. And, as ever 
has been the case on our upward journey, 
there were women lighting the pathway 
and stimulating effort; for during the ses- 
sions Mrs. Albreta Smith read a very in- 
teresting paper on ^^Tlie Success of the Ne- 
gro Women's Business Club of Chicago''; 
a delightful one was read by Mrs. Dora 
Miller, of Brookh^n, N. Y.; ^^Dressmaking 
and Millinery" was entertainingly present- 
ed by Mrs. Emma L. Pitts, of Macon, Ga., 
the ladies dwelling on the gTeat good that 
was being done b}^ their establishments 
by teaching and giving employment to 
scores of poor but worthy girls, and there- 
by helping them to lead pure and useful lives. 

I have given this exhibition of what the 
Negro is doing the foregoing space for en- 
couragement and precept, because I be- 
lieve it to be the key to unlock many doors 
to honorable and useful lives heretofore 
barred against us. 





Leaving Chicago, and having business 
with the President, I visited him at Can- 
ton, Avas kindlj^ received, and accomplished 
the object of my visit, little thinking that, 
in common with my countrymen I was so 
soon to be horrified and appalled by an 
atrocity which bathed the country in tears 
and startled the world in the taking-off of 
one of the purest patriots that had ever 
trod his native soil. 

The tragedy occurred at 4 o'clock p. m., 
on the 6th of September, 1901, in the Tem- 
ple of Music on the grounds of and during 
the Exposition at Buffalo, X. Y. Sur- 
rounded by a bodj^-guard, among whom 
was Secret Service Detective Samuel R. 
Ireland, of Washington, who was directly 
in front of the President, the latter en- 
gaged in the usual manner of handshak- 
ing at a public reception at the White 
House. Xot many minutes had expired; a 
hundred or more of the line had passed 
the President, when a young-looking man 
named Leon Czolgosz, said to be of Polish 
extraction, approached, offering his left 
hand, while his right hand contained a 
pistol concealed under a handkerchief^ 
fired two shots at the President. 



James Parker, a colored man, a very her- 
€iiles iu height, who was next to have 
greeted the President, struck tlie assassin 
a terrific blow that felled him to the floor, 
preventing him (as Ozolgosz himself avers 
in the following interview) from firing the 
third shot: 

^^Yesterday morning I went again to the 
Exposition grounds. Emma Goldman's 
speech was still burning me up. I waited 
near the central entrance for the Presi- 
dent, who was to board his special train 
from that gate, but the police alloAved no- 
body but the President's party to pass 
where the train waited. So I stayed at the 
grounds all day waiting. 

^ ^During 3 esterday I first thought of hid- 
ing my pistol under my handkerchief. I 
was afraid if I had to draw it from my 
pocket I would be seen and seized by the 
guards. I got to the Temple of Music the 
first one, and waited at the spot where the 
reception was to be held. 

^^Then he came, the President^ — the ruler 
—and I got in line and trembled and 
trembled until I got right up to him, and 
then I shot him twice through my white 
handkerchief. I would have fired more^ 
but I was stunned by a bloAV in the face — 
a frightful blow that knocked me down — 
and then everybody jumped on me. I 
thought I would be killed, and was sur- 
prised the way they treated me.'' 

Ozolgosz ended his story in utter exhaus- 



tion. When he had about concluded he 
was asked: 

^'Did you really mean to kill the Presi- 

^^I did/' was the cold-blooded reply. 

^^What was your motive; what good 
could it do?'' 

^^I am an anarchist. I am a disciple of 
Emma Goldman. Her words set me on 
fire," he replied, with not the slightest tre- 

During the first few days after he was 
shot there were cheering bulletins issued 
by the medical fraternity in attendance, all 
typical of his early recovery, and the heart 
of the nation was elated, to be, a week 
later, depressed Avith sadness at the an- 
nouncement that a change had come and 
that the President was dying. Never was 
grief more sincere for a ruler. He w^as 
buried encased with the homage and love 
of his people. William McKinley will live 
in history, not only as a man whose pri- 
vate life was stainless, and whose Adminis- 
tration of the Government w^as beyond re- 
proach, but as one brilliant, progressive, 
wise, and humane. 

Pre-eminent as an arbiter and director, 
developing the nation as a world power, 
and bringing to the effete and semi-civilized 
peoples of the Orient the blessings of civil- 
ized Government; as a leader and pro- 
tector of the industrial forces of the coun- 
try, William McKinley was conspicuous. 
With strength of conviction, leading at one 



time an almost forlorn hope, by his states- 
manship and intensity of purpose, he had 
grafted on the statute books of the Nation 
a policy that has turned the wheels of a 
thousand idle mills, employed a hundred 
thousand idle hands., and stimulated every 
manufacturing industry. 

This accomplished, in his last speech, 
memorable not only as his last public ut- 
terance, but doubly so as to wise states- 
manship in its advocacy of a less restrict- 
ive tariff, increased reciprocity, and inter- 
change Avitli the world's commodities. His 
love of justice was imperial. He was noted 
in this, that he was not only mentally emi- 
nent, but morally great. During his last 
tour in the South, while endeavoring to 
heal animosities engendered by the civil 
war and banish estrangement, he was posi- 
tive in the display of heartfelt interest in 
the Negro, visiting Tuskegee and other 
like institutions of learning, and by his 
presence and words of good cheer stimu- 
lating us to noble deeds. 

Nor was his interest manifest alone in 
words; his appointments in the bureaus of 
the Government of colored men exceeded 
that of any previous Executive — a repre- 
sentation which should increase in accord- 
ance with parity of numbers and fitness 
for place. 

The following excerpts from the Wash- 
ington Post, the verity of which was 
echoed in the account of the crime by the 


Who, Inspired by Patriotism and Fidelity, Stnick Down the As?a«in of 
President McKiiiloy. 



New York and other metropolitan journals 
on the day following the sad oecnrrencej 
gives a sketch of the manner and expres- 
sions of the criminal, and throws light on 
a peculiar phase of the catastrophe, that 
for the truth of history and in the interest 
of justice should not be so rudelj^ and cov- 
ertly buried 'neath the immature ^^beat- 
ing's of time/' 

Washington Post: In an interview Se- 
cret Service Detective Ireland, who, with 
Officers Foster and Gallagher, was near 
the President when the shots were fired^ 

^^A few moments before Czolgosz ap- 
proached a man came along with three fin- 
gers of his right hand tied up in a bandage^ 
and he had shaken hands with his left. 
When Czolgosz came up I noticed he was 
a boyish-looking fellow, Avith an innocent 
face, perfecth' calm, and I also noticed 
that his right hand was wrapped in what 
appeared to be a bandage. I w atched him 
closely, but was interrupted by the man 
in front of him, who held on to the Presi- 
dent's hand an unusually long time. This 
man appeared to be an Italian, and wore 
a short, heavy, black mustache. He was 
persistent, and it was necessary for me to 
push him along so that the others could 
reach the President. Just as he released 
the President's hand, and as the Presi- 
dent was reaching for the hand of the 
assassin, there were two quick shots. Star 
tied for a moment, I looked and saw the 



President draw his right hand up under 
his coat, straighten up, and, pressing his 
lips together, give Czolgosz the most scorn- 
and contemptuous look possible to imag- 

"At the same time I reached for the 
young man, and caught his left arm. The 
big Negro standing just back of him, and 
who would have been next to take the Pres- 
ident's hand, struck the young man in the 
neck with one hand, and with the other 
reached for the revolver, which had been 
discharged through the handkerchief, and 
the shots from which had set fire to the 

' "Immediately a dozen men fell upon the 
assassin and bore him to the floor. While 
on the floor Ozolgosz again tried to dis- 
charge the revolver, but before he could 
point it at the President, it was knocked 
from his hand by the Negro. It flew across 
the floor, and one of the artillerymen 
picked it up and put it in his pockef 

Another account: "Mr. McKinley 
straightened himself, paled slighth , and 
riveted his eyes upon the assassin. He did 
not fall or make an outcry. A Negro, 
named Parker, employed in the stadium, 
seized the wretch and threw him to the 
floor, striking him in the mouth. As he 
fell he struggled to use the weapon again, 
but was quickly overpowered. Guard Fos- 
ter sprang to the side of Mr. McKinley, 
who walked to a chair a few feet away.'' 

Washington Post, Oct. 9: James Par- 


ker, the six-foot Georgia Negro, who 
knocked down the assassin of President 
McKinley on the fatal day in the Temple 
of Music, after the two shots were fired^ 
gave a talk to an audience in the Metropol- 
itan A. M. E. Church last night. He was 
introduced by Hon. George H. White. 
Parker arose, and after a few preliminary 
remarks, in which he thanked the crowd 
for its presence, he said he was glad to see 
so many colored people believed he did 
what he claimed he did at Buffalo. 

"When the assassin dealt his blow,- ' said 
Parker, "I felt it was time to act. It is no 
great honor I am trying to get, but sim- 
ply what the American i>eople think I am 
entitled to. If Mr. McKinley had lived 
there would have been no question as to^ 
this matter. President McKinley was 
looking right at me; in fact, his eyes were 
riveted upon me when I felled the assassin 
to the floor. 

"The assassin was in front of me, and as 
the President went to shake his hand, he 
looked hard at one hand which the fellow 
held across his breast bandaged. I looked 
over the man's shoulder to see what the 
President was looking at. Just then there 
were two flashes and a report, and I saw 
the flame leap from the supposed bandage. 
I seized the man by the shoulder and dealt 
him a blow. I tried to catch hold of the 
gun, but he had lowered that arm. Quick 
as a flash I grasped his throat and choked 
him as hard as I could. As this happened 



he raised the hand with the gim in it again 
as if to fire, the burnig handkerchief 
hanging to the weapon. I helped carry 
the assassin into a side room, and helped 
to search him."' 

Parker told of certain things he was 
about to do to the assassin when one of the 
officers asked him to step outside. Parker 
refused. He declared the officers wanted 
to get him out of the way. He said he 
helped to carry the assassin to the carriage 
in which the wretch was taken to jail. 

"I don't know why I wasn't summoned 
to the trial,'' he said. 

Parker said Attorney Penney took his 
testimony after the shooting. 

''I was not at the trial, though,'- con- 
cluded Parker in an injured tone. ^'I don't 
say this was done with any intent to de- 
fraud me, but it looks mi^htv funnv, that's 

The above interviews with officers pres- 
ent agree with Parker's version of the af- 
fair, and whether the afterthought that 
further recognition of his decisive action 
would detract from the reput<ition for vigi- 
lance which they were expected to observe 
is a fitting subject for i>resumption. 

At the time of the occurrence Parker 
was the cynosure for all eyes. Pieces of 
the clothing that he wore were solicited 
and given to his enthusiastic witnesses of 
the deed, to be preserved as trophies of his 
action in preventing the third shot. No 
one present at that perilous hour and wit- 



nessing, doubted or questioned that Par- 
ker was the hero of the occasion. This, the 
better impulse, indicating a just apprecia- 
tion was destined soon to be stifled and ig- 
nored. At the sittings of the coroner's 
jury to investigate the shooting of the 
President, he was neither solicited nor al- 
lowed to be present, or testimony adduced 
in proof of his bravery in attempting to 
save the life of the Chief Magistrate of the 
Republic. Therefore, Parker, bereft of the 
well-earned plaudits of his countrjnnen, 
must content himself with duty done. 

Eemarkable are the coincidences at ev- 
ery startling episode in the life of the Na- 
tion. Beginning at our country's history, 
the Negro is ahvays found at the fore. He 
was there Avhen Crispus Attacks received 
the first of English bullets in the struggle 
of American patriots for Independence; 
there in the civil war, Avhen he asked to be 
assigned to posts of greatest danger. He 
Avas there quite recently at El Caney; and 
now Parker bravely bares his breast be- 
tween the intended tliird shot of the 
assassin and that of President McKinley. 

If this dispensation shall awaken the 
Nation to the peril of admitting the refuse 
of nations within our borders, and clothing 
them with the panoply of American citi- 
zenship; if it shall engender a higher ap- 
preciation of the loyaltj^ and devotion of 
the Negro citizens of the Eepublic by the 
extension of justice to all beneath the flag, 
William McKinley will not have died in vain. 

336 SHADOW and light. 


Taking up the reins of tlie Administra- 
tion of the Grovernmentj with its complex 
statesmanship, where a master had laid 
them down, President Roosevelt, hereto- 
fore known for his sterling worth as an 
administrator, and his imperial honesty as 
a man, has put forth no uncertain sound as 
to his intended course. The announcement 
that the foreign policy of his illustrious 
predecessor would be chiefly adhered to 
has struck a responsive chord in every pa- 
triotic heart. The appointment of ex-Gov. 
Jones, of Alabama, to a Federal judgeship 
was an appointment in unison with the 
best of popular accord. The nobility of the 
Governor in his utterances on the subject 
of lynching should endear him to every 
lover of justice and the faithful execution 
of law. For he so grandly evinced what is 
so sadly wanting in many humane and law- 
abiding men — the courage of his convic- 

^Tor when a free thought sought expres- 

He spoke it boklly, spoke it all.'' 

It is only to the fruition of such expres- 
sions, the molding of an adverse senti- 


President of the United States. 
Civil Service Commissiioner — Police Commissioner of New York — Assistant Sec- 
retary of War and Vice-President of the TTnited States— 
A Hei-o in War. a Stat<'sman in i'eace. 



ment to such lawlessness that we can look 
for the abolishment of that crime of crimes 
which, to the disgrace of our country, is 
solelj^ ours. 

This appointment is considered emi- 
nentl}' wise, not only for the superior abil- 
ity of the appointee as a jurist, but for his 
broad humanity as a man, fully recogniz- 
ing the inviolability of human life and its 
subjection to law. For the Negro, his pri- 
mal needs are protection and the common 
liberty vouchsafed to his fellow-country- 
men. To enjoy them it is necessary that he 
be in harmony with his environments. A 
bulwark he must have, of a friendship not 
the product of coercion, but a concession 
from the pulse-beat of justice. Such ap- 
pointments pass the word down the line 
that President Roosevelt, in his endeavor 
to be the exponent of the genius of Ameri- 
can citizenship, will recognize the sterling 
advocates of the basic elements of consti- 
tutional Government, those of law and or- 
der, irrespective of party affiliation. 

This appointment Avill probably cause 
dissent in Republican circles, but it may be 
doubted if the Negro advances his political 
fortunes by invidious criticism of the ef- 
forts of a Republican Administration to 
harmonize ante-bellum issues. For while 
he in all honesty may be strenuous for the 
inviolability of franchises of the Republi- 
can household, and widens the gap be- 
tiveen friendly surroundings, each of the 




political litigants meet with their knees 
under each others mahogany, and jocular- 
ly discuss NegTo idiosyncrasies, and tacitly 
agree to give his political aspirations a 
"letting alone.'^ For, with character and 
ability unquestioned for the discharge of 
duties, the vote polled for him usually 
falls far short of the average of that polled 
by his party for other candidates on the 

The summary killing of human beings by 
mobs without the form of law is not of 
late origin. Ever since the first note of re- 
construction was sounded, each Adminis- 
tration has denounced lynching. All his- 
tory is the record that it is only through 
discussion and the ventilation of wrong 
that right becomes a valued factor. But 
regard for justice is not diminishing in our 
country. The judiciar^^, although Aveak 
and amenable to ijrevailing local preju- 
dices in localities, as a Avhole is far in ad- 
vance on the sustenance of righteous rule 
than in the middle of the last century, 
when slavery ruled the Nation and its 
edicts were law, and its baleful influence 
permeated every branch of the Govern- 

Of the judiciary at that period Theodore 
Parker, an eminent Congregational divine 
and most noted leader of Christian 
thought, during a seinnon in 1854, said: 

"Slavery corrupts the judicial class. In 
America, especially in New England, no 
class of men has been so much respected as 



the judges, and for this reason: We have 
had wise, learned, and excellent men for 
our judges, men who reverenced the 
higher law of God, and sought by human 
statutes to execute justice. You all know 
their venerable names and how reveren- 
tially we have looked up to them. Many of 
them are dead, and some are still living, 
and their hoary hairs are a crown of glory 
on a judicial life without judicial blot. But 
of late slavery has put a different class of 
men on the benches of the Federal Courts 
— mere tools of the Government creatures 
who get their appointments as pay for 
past political service, and as pay in ad- 
vance for iniquity not yet accomplished. 
You see the consequences. Isote the zeal 
of the Federal judges to execute iniquity 
by statute and destroy liberty. See how 
ready they are to support the Fugitive 
Slave Bill, which tramples on the spirit of 
the Constitution and its letter, too; which 
outrages justice and violates the most sa- 
i-red principles and precepts of Christian- 
ity. Not a United States Judge, Circuit or 
District, has uttered one word against that 
bill of abominations. Nay, how greedy 
they are to get victims under it. No wolf 
loves better to rend a lamb into fragments 
than these judges to kidnap a fugitive 
slave and punish any man who desires to 
speak against it. You know what has hap- 
pened in Fugitive Slave Bill courts. You 
remember the ^miraculous' rescue of a 
Shadrach; the peaceable snatching of a 



man from the bauds of a cowardl}' kidnap- 
er was 'liigli treason;' it was 'levying 
war.- You remember the trial of the res- 
cuers! Judge Sprague's cbarge to the jury 
tliat if rbey tbougbt tbe question was 
wbicb tbey ougbt to obey, the laws of man 
or the laAvs of God, then they must *obey 
both,' serve God and Mammon, Chiust and 
the devil in the same act. You remember 
the trial, the ruling of the bench, the 
swearing on the stand, the witness com- 
ing baik to alter and enlarge his testimo- 
ny and have another gird at the prisoner. 
You have not forgotten the trials l)efore 
Judge Kane at Philadcdphia and Judge 
Greer at Christiana and Wilkesbarre. 

*^Tliese are natural results from causes 
well known. You cannot escape a princi- 
ple. Enslave a negro, will you? You 
doom to bondage vour own sons and 
daughters by your own act.'- 

At the death of Theodore Parker, among 
the many eulogies on his life was one by 
Ealph Waldo Emerson, highly noted for 
his humanity, his learning and his philos- 
ophy. It contains apples of gold, and 
richly deserves immortality; for in the 
Avorldly strife for effervescent wealth and 
prominence, a benign consciousness that 
our posthumous fame as unselfish bene- 
factors to our fellow-men is to live on 
through the ages, would be a solace for 
much misrepresentation. Emerson saidr 
"It is plain to me that Theodore Parker 
has achieved a historic immortality here^ 


Secretary to the Prefiideut. 
R<nn July. 1802, in State of \ew York — Has Made Mark in Literature and 
Art — His Promotion Has Been Rapid, Fn>ni Stem^craplier to Executive 
Clerk, Thence to Secretary to Presidents McKinley and 
Roosevelt, an Office Now Grown to the Diginity 
of a Cabinet Position. 



It will not be in the acts of City Councils 
nor of obsequious Mayors nor in the State 
House; the proclamations of Governors, 
with their failing vii^tue failing them at 
critical moments, that generations will 
study what really befel; but in the plain 
lessons of Theodore Parker in this hall, in 
Faneuil Hall and in legislative committee 
roomSj that the true temjjer and authentic 
record of these days will be read. The next 
generation will care little for the chances 
of election that govern Governors now; it 
will care little for fine gentlemen who be- 
haved shabbily; but it will read very intel- 
ligently in his rough story, fortified with 
^xact anecdotes, precise with names and 
dates, what part was taken by each actor 
who threw himself into the cause of hu- 
manity and came to the rescue of civiliza- 
tion at a hard pinch; and those who 
blocked its course. 

"The vice charged against America is the 
want of sincerity in leading men. It does 
not lie at his door. He never kept back 
the truth for fear of making an enemy. 
But, on the other hand, it was complained 
that he was bitter and harsh; that his zeal 
burned with too hot a flame. It is so hard 
in evil times to escape this charge for the 
faithful preacher. Most of all, it was his 
merit, like Luther, Knox, and Latimer and 
John the Baptist, to speak tart truth when 
that was i>eremptory and when there were 
few to say it. His commanding merit as a 
reformer is this, that he insisted beyond all 



men in pulpit — I cannot think of one rival 
— that the essence of Christianity is its 
practical morals; it is there for use, or it is 
nothing. If you combine it with sharp 
trading, or with ordinary city ambitions to 
glaze over municipal corruptions or pri- 
vate intemperance, or su>ccessful frauds, 
or immoral politics, or unjust wars, or the 
cheating of Indians, or the robbing of 
frontier natives, it is hypocrisy and the 
truth is not in you, and no love of religious 
music, or dreams of Swedenborg, or praise 
of John Wesley or of Jeremy Taylor, can 
save you from the Satan which you are.'' 




The accord so generally given to the 
appointment of ex-Governor Jones, of Ala- 
bama — a Gold Democrat, having views on 
domestic order in harmony with the Ad- 
ministration — to a Federal judgeship was 
destined to be followed by a bitter ar- 
raignment of President Roosevelt for hav- 
ing invited Booker T. Washington to dine 
with him at the White House. As a pass- 
ing event not without interest, in this era 
of the times, indicative of ^^shadow and 
light,'' I append a few extracts from 
Southern and Northern Journals: 


In all parts of the country comment has 
been provoked by the fact that President 
Roosevelt, on Wednesday night last, en- 
tertained at dinner in the White House, 
Booker T. Washington, who is generally 
regarded as the representative of the col- 
ored race in America. Especially in the 
South has the incident aroused indigna- 
tion, according to the numerous news dis- 
patches. The following comments from the 
editorial columns of newspapers and from 
prominent men are given: 



New Orleans, Oct. 19.— The Times-Dem- 
ocrat says: 

^^It is strauye uews that comes from 
Washington. The President of the United 
States, for the first time in the history of- 
the nation, lias entertained a Negro at din- 
ner in the Wliite House. White men of 
the South, how do you like it? White wo- 
men of the 8outh, how do you like it? 

"Everyone knows that when Mr. Koose- 
velt sits down to dinner in the AVhite 
House with a Negro he that nuuuent de- 
clares to all the world that in the judgment 
of the President of the United States the 
Negro is the social equal of the white man. 
The Negro is not the social ecjual of the 
white num. Mr. Itoosevelt might as well 
^ittempt to rub the stars out of the firma- 
ment as to try to erase that conviction 
from the heart and brain of the American 

The Daily States: ''In the face of the 
facts it can but appear that the President's 
-action was little less than a studied insult 
to the South adopted at the outset of his 
Adminstration for the purpose of showing 
liis contempt for the sentiments and prt^iu- 
dices of this section.'' 

Richmond, A^i., Oct. 19.— The Dispatch 
says : 

"With many qualities that are good — 
with some, possibly, that are great — Mr. 
Roosevelt is a negrophilist. While Gov- 
<^rnor of Now York he invited a Negro 



(who, on account of race prejudice, could 
not obtain accommodation at any hotel) to 
be his guest at the Executive Mansion, 
and, it is said, gave him the best room in 
the house. 

^^Night before last the President had 
Prof. Booker T. Washington to dine with 
him at the White House. That was a de- 
liberate act, taken under no alleged pres- 
sure of necessity, as in the Albany case, 
and may be taken as outlining his policj^ 
toward the Negro as a factor in Washing- 
ton society. AVe say 'Washington socie- 
ty,- rather than ^American society,' be- 
cause the former, on account of its politi- 
cal atmosphere, is much more ^advanced' 
in such matters than that of any other 
American city of which we know any- 
thing. The President, having invited 
Booker T. Washington to his table, resi- 
dents of Washington of less conspicuous 
standing may be expe'cted to do likewise. 
And if they invite him they may invite 
lesser lights — colored lights. 

^^When Mr. Cleveland was President he 
received Fred Douglass at some of his 
public entertainments — ^functions,' so- 
called — butwe do not remember that Fred 
was singled out for the distinguished hon- 
or of dining with the President, as Booker 
Washington has been. 

"We do not like Mr. Roosevelt's negro- 
philism at all, and are sorry to see him 
seeking opportunities to indulge in it. He' 
is reported to have rejoiced that Negro 



children Avere going to school with his chil- 
dren at Oyster Bay. But then, it may be 
said, too, that he has more reasons than 
the average white man to be fond of Ne- 
groes, since it was a Negro regiment that 
saved the Kough Kiders from decimation 
at San Juan Hill. And but for San Juan 
Hill it is quite unlikely that Mr. Koosevelt 
would be Tresideiit to-day. 

^^Booker Wasliington is said to have 
been very influential with the President 
in having Judge Jones put upon the Fed- 
eral bench in Alabama, and we are now 
fully prepared to believe that statement. 

^^With our long-matured vieAVS on the 
subject of social intercourse between 
blacks and whites, the least we can say 
now is that we deplore the President's 
taste, and we distrust his wisdom.-' 

Birmingham, Ala., Oct. 19. — The Enter- 
prise says: 

^^It remained for Mr. Ivoosevelt to es- 
tablish a precedent humiliating to the 
South and a disgrace to the nation. Judge 
Jones owes a duty to the South, to his 
friends and to common decency to prompt- 
ly resign and Inu'l the appointment back 
into the Yerj teeth of the white man who 
would invite a nigger to eat with his fam- 

Augusta, Ga., Oct. 19. — The Augusta 
Chroncile says, in its leading editorial, to- 
day : 

"The news from Washington that Presi 
dent Booker T. Washington, of Tuskegee 



Institute, was a j»uost at the White House 
at a dinuer with l^resident and Mrs. Roose- 
velt and raniily, and that after din- 
ner Ihi^n^ was tlie usual soeial hour 
over ei«;ars, is a dislinet shoek to the favor 
able sentiment that was erystallizinu in 
the South for the new TresiiUMit. 

^*Whil(^ eneoura«»in}^ the people* in (he 
hope* that the Nc^gro is to Ix* largely 
eliniinatcHl fiDUi otlici^ in (lu^ South, Presi- 
dent l\oos(M'(dt throws (he fa( in the tire 
by »>ivin*^ (•oun(enan(e (o ihe N(^j»n)'s 
elainis for so(*ial e(iuali(y by liavinu one 
to dine in tin* W'hiti* House. 

'^President Kooi^ievelt has made a mis- 
tak(^ om* that will not only elTaet* tin* i>()od 
impression in^ had b(\i;un (o cn^atc* in (he 
8ou(h, bu( on(^ (ha( will aetiv(dy anta^^o- 
uizt* SouthtM-n piMvph* and nun^t (he disap- 
proval of j»()od An,i»lo-Saxon s(Mitim(Mit in 
all lati(ud(*s. 

""T\w Soudi does no( rtdish ( lu* N(*j»ro in 
otti(*t\ bu( (hat is a small ma(((M* eomi)ared 
with i(s unaUtM'abh* o[)|>osi(ion (o soeial 
equality b(Mw(MMi (hi* racers. IM-(*sid(Mit 
l\oosev(d( has tlown in (In^ fa'ei* of publie 
sen(im(Mi( and preeipi(a((Ml an issue (hat 
has lonj»- sin(*(» biMMi fouj^ht out, and wliieh 
should hav(* Ixmmi l(d*( in (In* list of S(»ttl(Ml 
<lU(*s( ions." 

Nashville, Timiii., ()(•(. 1!). 1'he r:v(Mnn}»- 
Banner says: 

**What(*v(M' jus(itiea( ion may be at- 
tempt(Ml of (h(^ IM-(»sid(Mit's aetion in this 



instance, it goes without saying that it 
will tend to chill the favor with which he 
is regarded in the South, and will embar- 
rass him in his reputed purpose to build 
up his party in this section/' 

Louisville, Ky., Oct. 19.— The Times of 
yesterday afternoon says: 

''The President has eliminated the color 
line from his private and official residences 
and with public office is hiring white Dem- 
ocrats to whitewash it down South.'' 

Atlanta, Ga., Oct. 19. — Governor Can- 
dler says: 

^^No self-respecting Avhite man can ally 
himself with the President after what has 
occurred. The step has done the Eepubli- 
can party no earthly good, and it will ma- 
terially injure its chances in the South; 
The effect of the Jones appointment is 
largely neutralized. Still, I guess it's like 
the old Avoman when she kissed the cow. 
As a matter of fact, Northern people do 
not understand the Negro. They see the 
best tvpes and judge of tlie remainder by 
them.'' ' ^ 


Philadelphia, Oct. 19. — The Ledger this 
morning says: 

^^Because President Eoosevelt saw fit, 
in his good judgment, to invite Booker T. 
Washington to dinner, strong words of 
disapproval are heard in the South. Mr. 
"Washington is a colored man who enjoys 



the universal respect of all people in this 
country, black and TN^hite, on account of at- 
tainments, character and deeds. As the 
President invited him to be his private 
guest, and did not attempt to enforce the 
companionship of a colored man upon any 
one to whom the association could possi- 
bly be distasteful, smj criticism of the 
President's act savors of very great im- 
pertinence. But, considered in any light, 
the invitation is not a subject for criticism. 
Booker T. Washington is one of the most 
notable citizens of the country, just be- 
cause he has done noteworthy things. He 
is the founder and the successful executive 
of one of the most remarkable institutions 
in the United States, the Tuskegee (Ala- 
bama) Institute, which not onl,y aims, but 
in fact does, educate and train the youth 
of the negro race to become useful, indus- 
trious and self-supporting citizens. 

"Booker T. Washington is the embodi- 
ment of common sense and, instead of in- 
citing the members of his race to dwell 
upon their wrongs, to waste their time 
upon politics and to try to get something 
for nothing in this life, in order to live 
without work, he has constantly preached 
the gospel of honest work, and has found- 
ed a great industrial school, which fits the 
young Negroes for useful lives as workers 
and teachers of industry to others. This is 
the man who was justly called by Presi- 
dent McKinley, after he had inspected 
Tuskegee, the "leader of his race,'' and in 



the South no intelligent man denies that 
he is doing a great service to the whole 
population of both colors in this land. It 
is evident that the onlj objection that 
could be brought against association with 
such a man as that is color alone, and 
President Eoosevelt will not recognize 
that prejudice.'^ 

The Evening Bulletin says: 

^Tresident Eoosevelt night before last 
had Booker T. Washington, the worthy 
and much-respected colored man who is 
at the head of the Tuskegee Institute, as a 
guest at his private table in the White 
House. This has caused some indignation 
among Southerners and in Southern news- 

^^Yet all the President really seems to 
have done was an act of courtesy in asking 
Mr. Washington to sit down with him to 
dinner and have a talk with him. As 
Booker T. Washington is an entirely rep- 
utable man, as well as an interesting one, 
the President doubtless enjoyed his com- 
pany. Many Presidents in the past have 
had far less reputable and agreeable men 
at their table. If Mr. Roosevelt shall have 
no worse ones among his private guests, 
the country will have no cause for com- 

^^The right of the President to dine with 
anyone he may please to have with him is 
entirely his own affair, and Theodore 
Eoosevelt is not a likely man to pick out 


bad company, black or white, for his per- 
sonal or social companionship. The rum- 
pus which some indiscreet Southerners 
are trying to raise because he has been 
hospitable to a colored man is a foolish 
display of both manners and temper.'' 

Boston, Oct. 19. — Commenting on Presi- 
dent Roosevelt's action in extending hos- 
pitality to Booker T. Washington, Presi- 
dent Charles Eliot, of Harvard, said: 

^^Harvard dined Booker Washington at 
her tables at the last commencement. Har- 
vard conferred an honorary degree on 
him. This ought to show what Harvard 
thinks about the matter." 

William Lloyd Garrison: ^^It was a fine 
object lesson, and most encouraging. It 
was the act of a gentleman — an act of un- 
conscious natural simplicity." 

Charles Eliot Norton: ^^I uphold the 
President in the bold stand that he has 


New York Herald: ^^The President has 
absolutely no sympathy with the preju- 
dice against color. He has shown this on 
two occasions. Once he invited to his house 
at Oyster Bay, Harris, the Negro half-back 
of Yale, and entertained him over night. 
The other occasion was when he took in 
at the Executive Mansion at Albany, 
'Bringh/am, the Negro baritone of St. 
George's Church, who was giving a con- 



cert in Albany and had been refused food 
and shelter by all the hotels. 


Philadelphia Press: President Roose- 
velt's critics ai^e wasting breath and spill- 
ing ink. There is an obstinate man in the 
White House. The cry of ^^nigger will nei- 
ther prevent him from continuing to ap- 
point to any office in the Southern States 
the best men, under whatever color of pol- 
itics, who can be found under current con- 
ditions, or recognizing in the hospitalities^ 
of the White House the best type of Amer- 
ican manhood, under whatever color of 
skin it can be found. 


New York Tribune: The Southern poli- 
tician who criticises President Roosevelt's 
action in inviting Prof. Booker T. Wash- 
ington to dine at the White House is likely 
to raise the query whether the manager of 
the Tuskegee Institute or himself is really 
the more deserving and genuine friend of 
the South. 




Glad of Booker T. Washington's Help in 
Securing Office. 


Berate President for Dining With a Negro. 

Some Noted Occasions When the Alabama 
Educator Has Received the 
Plaudits of the South. 

Washington, D. C, Oct. 19.— President 
Koosevelt has a fine sense of humor, and 
Avhile he regrets that he has without malice 
stirred up a tempest in a teapot for the 
Southern editors by entertaining Professor 
Booker T. AVashington at dinner, he cannot 
put aside the humorous side of the situa- 
tion. It is only a few weeks since a num- 
ber of white Democrats co-operated with 
Booker Washington in regard to the ap- 
pointment of ex-Governor Jones to the va- 
cancy on the Federal bench in Alabama, 
and Washington spoke for these white 
Democrats when he came to the capital 
and assured President Roosevelt that 
Jones would accept the appointment and 
that it would be satisfactory to all classes. 




Washington bad seen the President and 
had acted as his agent in interviewing Gov- 
ernor Jones and others as to the appoint- 
ment. The Southern Democrats applauded 
tile appointment of Jones, and tliey praised 
Washington for using his influence at tlie 
White House to secure sucli an appoint- 
ment for a Democrat. Then they all spoke 
of Washington as a gentleman of culture, 
who had the refined sense to cut loose from 
the liepublican leaders of the Negro party 
in the South and work in harmony with 
the best class of whites. Now they are 
abusing the President for dining with a 

Washington has entertained more dis- 
tinguished Northern men and more distin- 
guished Southern men at the Tuskegee In- 
stitute than any other man in the State, if 
not in the South. President McKinley and 
his Cabinet, accompanied by many other 
distinguished gentlemen, were the guests 
of Washington at Tuskegee two years ago, 
and they lunched at his table. Washington 
was the guest of honor at a banquet in 
Paris three years ago, when Ambassador 
Porter presided and ex-President Harrison 
and Archbishop Ireland were among the 
guests. This same ^^nigger' was received 
by Queen Victoria and took tea in Buck- 
ingham Palace the same year. 


When he returned to this country Wash- 
ington received invitations from all parts 
of the South to deliver addresses and at- 



tend receptions given by white people. He 
was received by the Governors of Georgia, 
Virginia, West Virginia and Louisiana. He 
i^poke to many mixed audiences in the 
Houth, where whites and blacks united to 
do him honor. When the people of Atlanta 
wanted an appropriation from Congress 
for their Exposition in 1895 thej sent a 
large committee of the most distinguished 
men in the South to the National Capital 
to plead their cause. Booker T. Washing- 
ton Avas one of these distinguished South- 
ern men. Congressman Joseph E. Cannon, 
Chairman of the Committee on Appropria- 
tions in the House, says that Washington 
by his force and eloquence secured that ap- 
propriation of 1250,000 for the Atlanta Ex- 

The Southern people had only praise for 
him when he Avas arranging to take Vice- 
President Ivoosevelt to Tuskegee and Mont- 
gomery and Atlanta this fall, and they 
were eager to co-operate with him in enter- 
taining such a distinguished visitor. They 
still hope to have President Eoosevelt visit 
the South, and if he goes he will go as the 
^'uest of Booker T. Washington. 

The President knows, too, that the real 
leaders of the South, white Democrats, do 
not sympathize with this hue and cry of 
Southern editors because Washington was 
a guest at the White House. Today the 
President has received many messages 
from Southern men, urging him to pay no 
.attention to the yawp of the bourbon edi- 



tors, who have not been able to get over the 
old habit of historical discussion of "social 
equality.'' Southern men called at the 
White House today as usual to ask for fa- 
vors at the hands of the President, and 
they are not afraid of contamination by 
meeting the man who "ate with a nigger.'^ 


President Eoosevelt cannot help seeing 
the humorous side of the situation he has 
created by asking his friend to dinner, and 
he is pursuing the even tenor of his way as 
President without worrying over the out- 
come. He has, in the last two weeks, given 
cause for much excitement in the Souths 
The first was when he appointed a Demo- 
crat to office and ignored the professional 
Republican politicians, who claimed to car- 
ry the "nigger'' vote in their pocket. He 
was not disturbed by the threats of the 
Southern Republican politicians over that 
incident, and he is not disturbed by the 
threats of the Southern Democratic editors 
over this incident. 

As to the Southern objection to dining 
with a Negro, Opie Read, of Chicago, tells 
a stor^' about M. W. Gibbs, Avho has just 
resigned his position as United States Con- 
sul at Tamatave, Madagascar. Gibbs is 
now in Washington on his way home tO' 
Little Rock. He resigned to give a younger 
man a chance to serve his country as a 
Consul. Here is the story Opie Read told 
about Gibbs dining with white men at a 



banquet in honor of General Grant in Lit- 
tle Kock: 

^^In the reconstruction days a Negro by 
the name of Mifflin Wistar Gibbs located 
in Little Rock, Ark. He showed the com- 
munity that he was keener than a whole 
lot of its leading citizens, who had kept 
the offices in their families for generations. 
Under the new order of things he was ap- 
pointed Attorney of Pulaski County. His 
ability and the considerate manner in 
which he conducted his relationship with 
the whites gave him a greater popularity 
than any other colored man had ever be- 
fore enjoyed in that place. His influence 
increased, until General Grant, then Presi- 
dent, appointed him Eegister of the United 
States Land Office at Little Rock. 


^^When General Grant visited our city 
a banquet was prepared, and it was finally 
decided that for the first time in the history 
of the ^Bear State' a Negro would be wel- 
comed at a social function on terms of ab- 
solute equality. I was then editor of the 
Gazette, and my seat was next to that of 
Gibbs. The speaker who had been selected 
to respond to the toast, ^The Possibili- 
ties of American Citizenship' was absent. 
I asked Gibbs if he would not talk on that 
subject. He consented, and I arranged the 
matter with the toastmaster. The novelty 
and the picturesqueness of the thing ap- 
pealed to me. Every guest was spellbound, 



and General Grant was astonished. Not 
onl}' was the speech of the Negro the best 
one delivered on that occasion, but it was 
one of the most remarkable to which I have 
ever listened. 

^'The owner of the Gazette was a Demo- 
crat of the Democrats, and a strict keeper 
of the traditions of the South. Moreover, 
his paper was the official organ of the Dem- 
ocratic part}^, and we were in the heat of 
a bitter campaign. In spite of all this, 
however, I came out with the editorial 
statement that Gibbs had scored the great- 
est oratorical triumph of the affair. Per- 
haps this didn't stir things up a little. But 
the gratitude of Gibbs was touching. He 
is now United States Consul at Tamatave, 
Madagascar. In my opinion he is the great- 
est living representative of the colored 
race. AVe have been close friends ever 
since that banquet.'' 


(From the Washington (D. C.) Post, Octo- 
ber 23, 1901.) 

Quite the most dei)lorable feature of the 
Booiker Washington incident is, in our 
opinion, the effect it is likely to have on 
Washington himself; yet this is an aspect 
of the case which does not seem to have 
occurred thus far to any of the multitu- 
dinous and more or less enlightened com- 
mentators who have bestowed their views 
upon the country. Criticisms of the Presi- 



dent are matters of taste. For our party' 
we hold, and have always held, that a 
President's private and domestic affairs 
are not proper subjects of public discus- 
sion. A man does not surrender all of his 
personal liberties in becoming the Chief 
Executive of the Nation. At least, his 
purely family arrangements are not the 
legitimate concern of outsiders. The Pres- 
idency would hardly be worth the having 
otherwise. The country, however, has a 
right to consider the incident in the light 
of its probable injury to Washington and 
to the great and useful work in which he 
is engaged. 

In closing this page of ^^Shadow^ and 
Light'' I am loath to believe that this ex- 
treme display of adverse feeling regarding 
the President's action in inviting Mr. 
Washington to dine with him, as shown in 
some localities, is fully shared by the best 
element of Southern opinion. Few South- 
ern gentlemen of the class w^ho so cheer- 
fully pay the largest amount of taxation 
for the tuition of the Negro, give him em- 
ployment and do much to advance him 
along educational and industrial lines, fear 
that the President's action will cause the 
obtrusion of his bronze pedals beneath 
their mahogany. Trusting that he will be 
inspired to foster those elements of char- 
acter so conspicuous in Mr. Washington 
and that have endeared him to his broad- 



minded couutry men both North and South. 
The best intelligence, the acknowledged 
leaders of the race, are not only conserva- 
tive along political lines, but are in accord 
with those who claim that social equality 
is not the creature of law, or the product 
of coercion, for, in a generic sense, there 
is no such thing as social equality. The 
gentlemen who are so distuirbed hesitate, 
or refuse such equality with many of their 
own race; the same can be truthfully said 
of the Negro. Many antibellum theories 
.and usages have already vanished under 
the advance of a higher civilization, but 
the ^^old grudge'' is still utilized when 
truth and justice refuse their service. 




Wasiiiugton, the American ^^Mecca" for 
political worshipers, is a beautiful city, but 
well deserving its ^^nom de plume" as ^^the 
city of magnificent distances;"' for any one 
with whom you have business seems to live 
five miles from every imaginable point of 
the compass; and should you be on stern 
business bent, distance will not ^^lend en- 
chantment to the view/' It is here that the 
patriot, and the mercenary, the ambitious 
and the envious gather, and where unity 
and divergence hold high carnival. 

Dramatists have found no better field 
for portraying the vicissitudes and uncer- 
tainties, the successes and triu^mphs of hu- 
man endeavor. The ante-room to the 
President's office presents a vivid 
picture, as they wait for, or emerge 
from, executive presence, delineating the 
vvaried phases of impre^ssible human na- 
ture^ — the despondent air of ill success; the 
pomp of place secured; the expectant, but 
hope deferred; the bitterness depicted in 
waiting delegations on a mission of opposi- 
tion bent; the gleam of gladness on suc- 
cess; homage to the influential — all these 
figure, strut or bemoan in the ratio of a 



self-importance or a dejected mein. There 
is no more liumorous reading, or more typ- 
ical, tlian the ups and downs of office-seek- 
ers. Sometimes it is that of William the 
"^Innocent," and often that of William the 
^^Croker.'' The trials of ^^an unsuccessful/' 
a prototype of ^^Orpheus 0. Kerr/' the nom 
de plume of that prince of writers, on this 
subject, is in place: 

Diarj^ of an office-seeker, William the 

March 2d — Just arrived. Washington a 
nice town. Wonder if it would not be as 
well to stay here as go abroad. 

March 4th — Saw McKinley inaugurated. 
We folks who nominated him will be all 
right now. Think I had better take an as- 
sistant secretaryship. The Administration 
wants good men, who know something 
about politics; besides, I am getting to like 

March 8th — Big crowd at the White 
House. They ought to give the President 
time to settle himself. Have sold my ex- 
cursion ticket and will stay awhile. Too 
mam^ people make a hotel uncomfortable. 
Have found a good boarding house. 

March 11th — Shook hands with the 
President in the East Room and told him 
I would call on a matter of business in a 
few days. He seemed pleased. 

March 15th — Went to the Capitol and 
found Senator X. He was sour. Said the 
whole State was there chasing him. Asked 



me what I wanted, aud said, ^'Better go for 
something in reach.'' Maybe an auditor- 
ship would be the thing. 

March 23d — Toolv my papers to the 
White House. Thought I'd wait and have 
a private talk with the President, but Ser- 
geant Porter said I'd have to go along with 
the rest. What an ill-natured set they 
were. Elbowed me right along just be- 
cause they saw the President wanted to 
talk with me. Will have to go back and 
finish our conversation. 

March 27 — Got some money from 

March 29th— Went to the White House,, 
but the chap at Porter's door wouldn't let 
me in. Said it was after hours. He ought 
to be fired. 

April 3d — Saw Mark Hanna, after wait- 
ing five hours. Asked him why my letter 
had not been answered. He said he waa 
getting 400 a day and his secretaries would 
catch up some time next year. I always 
thought Hanna overestimated. Now I 
know it. 

April 5th — Had an interview with the 
President. Was last in the line, so they 
could not push me along. When I told him 
of my services to the party, he replied: 
^'Oli, yes;" and for me to file my papers in 
the State Department. Said he had many 
good friends in Indiana and hoped they 
would be patient. Can he have forgotten 
I am not from Indiana? Probably the 



tariff is worrying him. Shameful the way 
the Senate is acting. 

April Tth — Borrowed a little more 
money. Washington is an expensive town 
to live in. 

April 11th — Senator X. says all the audi- 
torships were mortgaged before the elec- 
tion, but he will indorse me for a special 
agency or a chief clerkship, if I can find one 
that is not under the civil service law. 

April 12th — D — n the civil service law. 

April 17th — Didn't know there were so 
many good positions abroad. Ought to 
have gone for one of them in the first place. 
That State Department is a great thing. 
Think I'll start with Antwerp and check 
off a few which will suit me. Wonder 
where I can negotiate a small loan? 

April 19th — Got in to see the President 
and told him I could best serve the Admin- 
istration and the party abroad. He said, 
^^Oh, yes,'' and to file my papers in the Post- 
office Department, and he hoped his friends 
in Massachusetts would be patient. What 
made him think I was from Massachusetts? 
I suppose he gets mixed sometimes. 

April 20th — Senator X. says there is one 
chance in a million of getting a Consulate; 
but if I will concentrate on Z town he and 
the delegation will do what thev can. Sal- 
.ary, |1,000; fees, |87. 

April 21st — Have concentrated on Z 
town. Got in line today just for a moment 
to tell the President it would suit me. He 



said, ^^Oli, yes/' and to file my papers in the 
Treasuiy Department, and he hoped his 
friends in Minnesota would be patient till 
he could get around to them. Queer he 
should think I aa as from Minnesota. 

April 26th — The ingratitude of that man 
McKinley! He has nominated Jones for 
Z town, AA^hen he knew I had concentrated 
on it. After my services to the party, too! 
Who is Jones, anyhoAA^? 

April 27th — I am going home. Senator 
X has got me a pass. Will send for my 
trunk later. It is base ingratitude. 

William the ^^Groker,'' the other appli- 
cant for official faA' or, AA^anted "Ambasador 
to Eussia,'' and aA' hile not attaining the full 
measure of his ambition, aA' as nevertheless 
rewarded for his pertinacity. His sojourn 
in Washington had been long, and was be- 
coming irksome, particularly so to the Sen- 
ators and Members of Congress from his 
State, who had from time to time minis- 
tered to his pecuniary wants. But Seth 
Orton was noted at home and abroad for 
his staying qualities. He came from an 
outlying district in his State that was po- 
litically pivotal, and Seth had been known 
on several occasions by his fox-horn con- 
tributions to rally the ^^unwashed'' and 
save the day AA^lien hope but faintly glim- 
mered above the political horizon. For his 
Congressional delegation Seth was both 
useful at home and expensive abroad. That 
the mission for which he aspired was be- 



joncl liis reach they were fully aware; that 
he must be disposed of they were equally 
agreed. After having adroitly removed the 
props to his aspirations for Ambassador, 
Minister Plenipotentiary and Consul, they 
told him they had succeeded in getting him 
an Indian agency, j)aying |1,000 a j^ear. He 
^^ as disgusted, and proclaimed rebellion. 
They appeased him by telling him that the 
appropriation for supplies and other neces- 
saries the last year was ten thousand dol- 
lars, and they were of the opinion that the 
former agent had saved half of it. A 
gleam of joy and quick consent were 
prompt! Walking up and down his Con- 
gressman's room, pleased, then thoughtful, 
then morose, he finally exclaimed to his 
patron, ^^Look here, Mr. Harris; don't you 
think that |5,000 of the |10,000 too much 
to give them d — n nigger Indians?'' 

On the official side of colored Washing- 
ton life, we see much that is gratifying rec- 
ognition. The receipt by us of over a mil- 
lion dollars annually, on the one side, and 
the rendering of a creditable service on the 
other, while our professional and business 
status in the District is equally commenda- 
ble, and much more prolific in the bestowal 
of substantial and lasting benefit. And 
on the domestic side we have much that is 
cheering, comprising a large representa- 
tion of wealth and intelligence, living in 
homes indicating refinement and culture, 
and with a social contact the most desir 

Lawyer, and Editor of '*^yashill^•tcn Bee." 

V»orii ill AVasliiii£^-toii. 1). C.. F('l)!-ii- rv. is"-! — L(';\a iii.e' tlir TM!l)r;c Soliool ontortul 
Howard I'nrvoisity and tluMe (Iradna red— As Editor (.r Lawyer Ho is 
Tireless in His Adlu-reiioe to wcU-forioed ( 'on vict ions — The 
"Bee" Hiinis no Uiieertain Souiul. 



Mr. Auclrew F. Hilyer, editor and com- 
piler of ^^Tlie Twentieth Century Union 
League Directory/' in his introduction to 
that able and useful publication, says: 
^•This being the close of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, after a generation of freedom, it was 
thought to be a good point at Avhich to 
stop and take an account of stock, and see 
just what is the actual status of the colored 
population of Washington, the Capital of 
the Nation, where the colored population 
is large, and where the conditions are the 
most faA'Orable, to see what is their actual 
status as skilled Avorkmen, in business, in 
the professions, and in their organizations ; 
in short, to make a study, at first hand, of 
their efforts for social betterment.'' 

This publication contains the names, 
character and location of 500 business men 
and women. It is creditable to the com- 
piler and encouraging for the subjects of 
its reference. 

The colored newspapers of the District, 
several in number, are of high order, and 
maintain a reputation for intelligent jour- 
nalism, and for energy and devotion to the 
cause they espouse are abreast with those 
of sister communities. The growth of Ne- 
gro journals in our country has been 
marked. We have now three hundred or 
more newspapers and magazines, edited 
and published by colored men and women. 
The publisher of a race paper early finds 
that it is not a sinecure nor a bed of roses. 
If he is zealous and uncompromising in the 



defense of his race, exposing outrages and 
injustice; advertisements are withdrawn 
by those who have the most patronage to 
bestow. Should he ^^crook the pregnant 
hinges of the knee, that thrift may follow 
fawning/' and fail to denounce the wrong, 
the paper loses influence and subscriptions 
of those in whose interest it is professedly 
established, and hence, as an advertising 
medium, it is deserted. 

So, as for the publisher (in the words of 
that eccentric Puritan, Lorenzo Dow), 
He'll be damned if he does, and 
be damned if he don't.'' He is be- 
tAveen "Scilla and Carribdes," requir- 
ing versatility of ability, courage of con- 
viction and a wise discretion, that he may 
steer ^^between the rocks of too much dan- 
ger and pale fear," and reach the port of 
success. The mission of the Negro press 
is a noble one, for ^^Kight is of no sex^ and 
Wrong of no color," and God, the Father of 
us all, with these as its standard, to be 
effectual it must give a ^^plain, unvarnished 
tale, nor set down aught in malice." The 
white journals of the country often quote 
the Negro press as to Negro wants and 
Negro aspirations, and as time and condi- 
tions shall justify it will necessarily be- 
come more metropolitan and less exclusive, 
dealing more with economic and industrial 
subjects on broader lines and from more 
material standpoints. 


United Status Coiiisiil to Madasa^car. 
Born May, 1860, in Lonis^iana — Gradnat.Ml ,11 (ir 011 Ar-^uVMnv. Mass iclni.-otts, 
and Studied at Williams' Colle.i?e — Secretary and Vice-Consul to the 
Consulate — Appointed Consul by President McKinley 
August 27, rJOl — Competent an Worthy. 





Howard University was established by 
a special act of Congress in 1867. It takes 
its name from that of the great philan- 
thropist and soldier, Gen. O. O. Howard, 
Avho may be called its fonnder and great- 
est patron. It was through the untiring- 
efforts of General Howard that this special 
act passed Congress to establish a univer- 
sity^ on such broad and liberal lines as 
those that characterize Howard Univer- 

This University admits students of both 
sexes and any color to all of its depart- 
ments. The great majority of its students, 
however, are colored, and some of its grad- 
uates are the most distinguished men of 
the Negro race in America. It has splendid 
departments of law, medicine, theology and 
the arts and sciences. 

HoAvard University is situated on one of 
the most beautiful sites of the Capital of 
the Nation. 

Having two members of my family as 
teachers in the public schools of Washing- 
ton City, I have learned considerable about 
them. They are said to rank among our 




best public schools, and are constantly im- 
proving, under the careful supervision of 
a highly competent superintendent, and a 
paid board of trustees. There are 112 school 
buildings in the city — 75 for w^hite and 37 
for colored, the number being regulated ac- 
cording to population, about one-third be- 
ing colored. New manual training schools 
have just been erected, for both races, and 
a growing disposition exists to provide 
equal (though separate) accommodation 
and opportunity^ The colored schools are 
taught exclusively by colored teachers, the 
grade schools being conducted by the grad- 
uates of the Washington Normal School 
almost entirely^ The M Street High School, 
a leading sample of the best public schools 
of the country, has a teaching faculty of 
twenty teachers, most of them graduates of 
our best colleges, such as Howard, Yale, 
Oberlin, University of Michigan, Amherst, 
Brown and Cornell. 

11. H. Terrill, the present principal, is a 
graduate of Howard, with the degree of 
^^Cum laude,'' and, after having won golden 
opinions from the board and attaches of 
the school for his scholarship and super- 
vising ability^, has been appointed hj Pres- 
ident Eoosevelt to a judgship of the Dis- 
trict, and will assume the duties thereof in 
January, 1902. 

All such appointments are helpful, com- 
ing from the highest ruler, and for place, 
at the fountain head of the Government, 
have a reflex influence upon much which is 


"*^'as born in Vir.uiiiia in 1S.")7 — A Graduate of Harvard ('ollc.iir — A Cliipf of Divi- 
sion in tlie ITnitfHl States Treasury and Principal of tho Colored High 
Selioo'l — Appointed one of the Judges of the District of 
Golinnbia Novcinher, 1001. 



unjust. With each success we should be- 
ware of envY, the offspring of selfishness, 
which is apt to creep insiduously into our 
lives. We should crown the man who has 
achieved distinction and odvise him as to 
pitfalls. ^^No sadder proof/^ Carlisle has 
said, ^^can be given by a man of his own 
littleness than disbelief in great men.'' 
There is no royal road to a lasting emi- 
nence but the toilsome pathway of dili- 
gence, self-denial and high moral rectitude; 
surel,y not by turning sharp corners to fol- 
low that ^Svill-o'-tlie wisp'' transient suc- 
cess, at the expense of upright conduct. 
Neither suavity of manner nor the gilding 
of education will atone for disregarding 
the sanctity of obligation, the violation of 
which continues to wreck the lives and 
blast the promise of many. By sowing the 
seed of uprighteousness, by unceasing ef- 
fort and rigid frugality, the harvest, 
though sometimes tardy, will be sure to 
produce an hundred fold in Christian vir- 
tues and material prosperity. The latter is 
a necessitj^ for our progress; for, say what 
you will about being ^^just as good as any- 
body," the world of mankind has little use 
for a penniless man. The ratio of its atten- 
tion to you is largely commensurate with 
your bank account and your ability to fur- 
ther ends involving expenditure. Whether 
this estimate is in accord with the highest 
principle, the Negro has not time to inves- 
tigate, for he is up against the hard fact 
that confronts the great majority of man- 



kind, and one witli which each for hinisidf 
must i^rapple. ( )])])ortunity may be late, 
but it comes to liim who watches and waits 
wliile dili<>ent in wliat his hands may find 
to do. For, with all that may be said, <»Ta- 
cious or malicious, of the ''Xe<>ro ])robleni,'' 
we are unmistakably on the u])ward <>rade, 
educationally and financially, wliile these" 
bitter criticisms and animadversions will 
be the moral Avei<»hts to steady our foot- 
steps and <»ive surety to ])ro<>ress. 

Grantin<»' no excuse for i<»norance or un- 
fitness in a political aspirant, or for a relig- 
ious ministry at the present day, we can- 
not but renuMnber that our present lines 
in nioi-e phasant i)laces, both in 
Church and State, had im])etus through the 
trying ordeal of toil, suffering and mas- 
sacre duiing the era of reconstruction. 
Many, though unlettered, with a nobility 
of soul that o})pression could not humble, 
were martyrs to their Christian zeal for the 
right and finger boards and beacon lights 
on the dark and ])erilous road to our pres- 
ent advanced position. 

In concluding this imperfect autobiog- 
raphy, containing mention of ^^men I have 
met" in the nineteenth century, absence of 
many co-laborers, both white and colored, 
will be observable, w hose ability, devotion 
and sacrifi(*e should be treasured as heir- 
looms by a grateful people. 

And now, kind reader, who has followed 
me in my w anderings — 

^^Say not 'Good night," but in some 
brighter clime bid me "Good morning.'